امکان‌سنجی اهلی‌کردن برخی گونه‌های بنفشه (Viola spp.) بومی ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گیاهان دارویی، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه سازه و منابع آب، دانشکده آب و خاک، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

10.22092/ijmapr.2022.357486.3145

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف مقایسه توده‌های جنس بنفشه (Viola spp.) جمع‌آوری شده از شمال و شمال‌غرب ایران، به‌منظور بررسی سازگاری و امکان‌سنجی اهلی‌سازی آنها در شرایط آب و هوایی گرگان انجام شد. نمونه‌های گیاه کامل به‌همراه ریزوم آنها از 9 رویشگاه‌ در استان‌هان گلستان، مازندران، گیلان، آذربایجان و کرمانشاه در فصل رویش جمع‌آوری شدند. پس از تأیید گیاهشناسی و دریافت کد هرباریومی، ریزوم‌ها با سه تکرار در ترکیب خاکی و آب و هوای یکسان کشت شدند. اجزای عملکرد و صفات فیزیولوژیک، مورفولوژیک و فیتوشیمیایی آنها پس از گذشت یک سال زراعی در زمان گلدهی اندازه‌گیری شدند. نتایج نشان داد این 9 توده از گونه‌های V. alba Besser، V. odorata L.، V. sieheana W.Becker و V. ignobilis Rups. بودند. همگی توده‌ها پس از گذشت یک سال زراعی تولید گل و بذر نمودند. توده‌ها با هم اختلاف معنی‌دار (در سطح احتمال 1‌%) داشتند. جمعیت V. ignobilis از منطقه کرمانشاه بیشترین مقدار وزن تر ریشه و اندام هوایی، وزن خشک اندام هوایی و سطح ‌برگ را داشت. بیشترین میزان طول ریشه و اندام هوایی به جمعیت V. sieheana از منطقه النگدره اختصاص یافت. جمعیت V. alba از منطقه زیارت بیشترین مقدار فنل کل (45.74 میلی‌گرم اسیدگالیک بر گرم عصاره خشک) و فلاونوئید کل (20.24 میلی‌گرم کوئرستین بر گرم عصاره خشک) را داشت. بیشترین میزان کلروفیلa، کلروفیلb، کلروفیل کل، کاروتنوئید و آنتوسیانین به جمعیت V. odorata از منطقه بندرگز تعلق گرفت. بیشترین میزان فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی به‌روش‌های DPPH و ABTS در جمعیت V. alba از منطقه افراتخته و بیشترین میزان فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی به‌روش FRAP در جمعیت V. odorata از منطقه قرن‌آباد مشاهده شد. بیشترین میزان آنتی‌اکسیدان کل در جمعیت‌های V. alba و V. oderata از منطقه زیارت اندازه‌گیری شد. به‌طور کلی، نتایج حاکی از وجود تنوع قابل ملاحظه صفات در جمعیت‌های بنفشه است. این تنوع می‌تواند به‌دلیل پتانسیل ژنتیکی بالا در بین جمعیت‌ها، اختلاف شرایط محیطی و یا اثرات متقابل جمعیت و محیط بوجود آمده باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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