تجزیه ژنتیکی برخی صفات کمّی آویشن دنایی (Thymus daenensis Celak) در شرایط تنش شوری از طریق آزمون پلی‌کراس

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا، گروه علوم باغبانی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 استاد، گروه علوم باغبانی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

4 دانشیار، بخش زیست‌فناوری مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

توسعه کشت آویشن دنایی (Thymus daenensis Celak) سازگار به شرایط محیطی خاص از طریق اصلاح جمعیت، نیازمند ایجاد یک خزانه ژنتیکی غنی از ژنوتیپ‌های برتر و بهره‌برداری از این تنوع برای شناسایی ژنوتیپ‌های با ترکیب‌پذیری بالا می‌باشد. در این پژوهش، به‌منظور مطالعه تنوع ژنتیکی و میزان ترکیب‌پذیری اکوتیپ‌های مختلف‌ آویشن دنایی در شرایط شوری، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در شرایط گلخانه‌ای اجرا شد. فاکتورها شامل تنش شوری (0 و 90 میلی‌مولار نمک NaCl) و اکوتیپ (12 خانواده‌ ناتنی حاصل از تلاقی پلی‌کراس بین 12 اکوتیپ آویشن دنایی) بودند. شوری سبب کاهش معنی‌دار همه صفات (بجز مقادیر پرولین و کاروتنوئید) نسبت به شاهد گردید. اکوتیپ‌ها از نظر طول و عرض برگ، طول شاخه‌های جانبی، وزن خشک اندام‌های هوایی، میزان اسانس و پرولین اختلاف معنی‌دار داشتند. درصد اسانس و عرض برگ دارای بیشترین ضریب تنوع فنوتیپی و ژنوتیپی بودند. وراثت‌پذیری عمومی صفات مورد مطالعه از 4.61% (طول برگ) تا 81.07% (عرض برگ) متغیر بود. بیشترین میزان وراثت‌پذیری به عرض برگ، میزان اسانس و وزن خشک اندام‌های هوایی اختصاص داشت. با توجه به میزان بالای ضریب تنوع ژنوتیپی و فنوتیپی، وراثت‌پذیری و پیشرفت ژنتیکی میزان اسانس و وزن خشک اندام‌های هوایی، از این صفات می‌توان به‌عنوان مهم‌ترین معیارهای انتخاب والدین در برنامه‌های اصلاحی آویشن دنایی نام برد. نتایج نشان داد که اکوتیپ‌های ملایر2، زاغه، اراک و ایلام دارای ترکیب‌پذیری بالایی از نظر صفت میزان اسانس بودند. با توجه به تنوع ژنتیکی کافی مشاهده شده میان اکوتیپ‌های مطالعه شده و ترکیب‌پذیری مناسب آنها، راهبرد اصلاح جمعیت با تولید ارقام ساختگی (ترکیبی) را می‌توان برای به‌نژادی این گونه در شرایط نرمال (بدون تنش) و شوری توصیه نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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