بررسی اثر برخی از عوامل محیطی بر ترکیب اسانس Salvia multicaulis Vahl. در استان همدان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای علوم مرتع، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

2 استاد، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

3 دانشیار، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

4 استاد، گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

چکیده

گونه‌های جنس مریم‌گلی (Salvia) به‌واسطه تولید متابولیت‌های ثانویه اهمیت بالایی در صنایع مختلف غذایی، دارویی و بهداشتی-آرایشی دارند. اگرچه تولید متابولیت‌های ثانویه در گیاهان تحت کنترل ژنتیک گیاه می‌باشد، اما عوامل محیطی روی تولید و ترکیب آنها در گیاهان تأثیر زیادی دارند. در پژوهش حاضر به‌منظور بررسی اثرات برخی از عوامل اقلیمی، توپوگرافی و پارامترهای خاکی بر ترکیب اسانس گیاه Salvia multicaulis Vahl.، نمونه‌های گیاه در فصل گل‌دهی از 9 رویشگاه متفاوت در استان همدان جمع‌آوری شدند. نمونه‌های خاک نیز از پای هر گیاه در مناطق نمونه‌گیری برداشت شدند. اسانس گیاهان به روش تقطیر با آب استخراج و ترکیب آنها توسط دستگاه‌های GC و GC/MS شناسایی شد. فاکتورهای خاک براساس دستورالعمل‌های مربوطه اندازه‌گیری و آمار هواشناسی نیز از ایستگاه‌های هواشناسی استان همدان استخراج گردید. برای بررسی تأثیر عوامل محیطی مختلف بر ترکیب اسانس‌ها از آنالیز RDA استفاده شد. خوشه‌بندی رویشگاه‌های مورد مطالعه بر مبنای ترکیب‌های غالب اسانس‌ها و براساس روش WARDS انجام گرفت. ترکیب اسانس در رویشگاه‌های مختلف متفاوت بود. ترکیب‌های آلفا-پینن (32.1-1.3%)، آلفا-فلاندرن (7-1.1%)، 8،1-سینئول (17.2-1%)، بورنیل استات (16.2-7%) و بتا-کاریوفیلن (40.6-9.1%) ترکیب‌های غالب اسانس این گیاه بودند. نتایج RDA نشان داد که بازده اسانس و درصد ترپن‌های اکسیژن‌دار با افزایش ارتفاع افزایش یافتند، اما درصد ترپن‌های هیدروکربنی همبستگی معکوس با ارتفاع داشت. مونوترپن‌ها همبستگی مثبت با رطوبت نسبی، بارندگی و کربن آلی خاک داشتند، اما سسکویی‌ترپن‌ها رابطه معکوس با عوامل یاد شده و همبستگی مثبت با فسفر و تا حدی کلسیم خاک داشتند. رویشگاه‌های مورد مطالعه به دو گروه متمایز با غالبیت مونوترپن‌ها و سسکویی‌ترپن‌ها در اسانس خوشه‌بندی شدند. این یافته‌ها جهت بهره‌برداری تجاری از گیاه مریم‌گلی با هدف استخراج ترکیب‌های ثانویه خاص موجود در اسانس آن می‌توانند حائز اهمیت باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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