اثر کود کامل NPK، بوتامیسول و اسید هیومیک بر صفات مورفوفیزیولوژیک و اسانس سه گونه از جنس آویشن (Thymus spp.) تحت تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار، مرکز تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی ادویه‌ای و عطری، واحد شهرکرد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شهرکرد، ایران

چکیده

با توجه به نقش ارزنده گیاه آویشن در صنایع داروسازی و غذایی کشور، در این تحقیق اثرگذاری کودهای کامل NPK، بوتامیسول و اسید هیومیک بر خصوصیات مورفوفیزیولوژیکی و اسانس سه گونه آویشن کوهی (Thymus kotschyanus Boiss)، آویشن باغی (T. vulgaris L.) و آویشن دنایی (T. daenensis Celark) تحت شرایط تنش خشکی مطالعه گردید. این تحقیق در سه آزمایش جداگانه به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در سال‌ زراعی 1399-1400 در دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شهرکرد انجام شد. محلول‌پاشی دو بار با فاصله زمانی سه هفته بعد از مرحله 10 برگی شدن گیاه انجام شد. 24 تیمار آزمایشی شامل عدم استفاده (A1) و استفاده (A2) از NPK، عدم استفاده (B1) و استفاده (B2) از اسید هیومیک، عدم استفاده (C1) و استفاده (C2) از بوتامیسول در شرایط تنش خشکی در سه سطح ظرفیت مزرعه (D1)، 50% (D2) و 75% تخلیه رطوبتی (D3) بودند. بالاترین مقادیر ارتفاع بوته (1.1±44.5 سانتی‌متر)، تعداد شاخه ‌اصلی (1.5±26.4)، وزن‌ بوته ‌خشک (0.99±40.5 گرم در مترمربع)، کلروفیل‌ کل (0.1±1.55 میلی‌گرم بر گرم وزن تر) و lpj,d اسانس (0.1±1.88%) توسط تیمار A2B2C2D1 در آویشن کوهی بدست آمد. تیمار A2B2C2D3 (استفاده از هر سه نوع کود با وجود تنش خشکی شدید) بیشترین محتوی پرولین (0.2±13.9 میکروگرم در گرم وزن تر) و کمترین میزان اسانس (0.1±0.79%) را در آویشن دنایی تولید کرد. ترکیب‌های غالب اسانس در گونه‌ T. kotschyanus تیمول و کارواکرول، در گونه T. vulgaris، تیمول، گاما-ترپینن، پارا-سیمن و لینالول و در گونه T. daenensis، تیمول، کارواکرول، پارا-سیمن، بتا-کاریوفیلن، آلفا-پینن و میرسن بودند. بهره‌مندی بیشتر از مواد مغذی و تنش در حداقل ممکن به‌همراه آب و هوای معتدل منطقه مورد تحقیق، منجر به معرفی آویشن کوهی به‌عنوان گونه شاخص در این زمینه شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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