اثر کاربرد کود زیستی مایکوروت بر کمّیت و کیفیت اسانس Thymus vulgaris L. در کشت مخلوط با Cicer arietinum L.

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد اگرواکولوژی، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکترای اگروتکنولوژی- اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی،‌ گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

چکیده

سیستم‌های کشت مخلوط و کاربرد کودهای زیستی نقش بسزایی در بهبود کمّیت و کیفیت محصولات دارند. در این راستا، پژوهشی برای ارزیابی اثر کود زیستی مایکوروت بر صفات کمّی و کیفی آویشن باغی (Thymus vulgaris L.) در کشت مخلوط با نخود زراعی (Cicer arietinum L.)، به‌صورت طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مراغه در سال زراعی 1399 اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل کشت خالص آویشن، کشت خالص آویشن تلقیح شده با قارچ، کشت خالص نخود، کشت خالص نخود تلقیح شده با قارچ، کشت مخلوط یک ردیف نخود + یک ردیف آویشن (1:1)، الگوی کشت 1:1 تلقیح شده با قارچ، کشت دو ردیف نخود + یک ردیف آویشن (2:1) و الگوی کشت 2:1 تلقیح شده با قارچ بودند. نتایج نشان داد، بیشترین عملکرد دانه (751.4 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و عملکرد بیولوژیک (1645.6 کیلوگرم در هکتار) نخود در کشت خالص نخود با کاربرد قارچ میکوریزا حاصل شد که تفاوت معنی‌داری با تیمار 2:1 با مصرف میکوریزا نداشت. علاوه‌براین، بیشترین عملکرد ماده خشک آویشن (189.47 گرم در مترمربع) نیز به کشت خالص با کاربرد قارچ میکوریزا تعلق داشت. همچنین، بیشترین درصد (1.69%) و عملکرد اسانس (3.31 گرم در مترمربع) در الگوی کشت مخلوط 1:1 تلقیح شده با قارچ میکوریزا در چین اول بدست آمد. براساس آنالیز شیمیایی اسانس تیمول، گاما-ترپینن و پارا-‌سیمن ترکیب‌های غالب اسانس بودند. بیشترین درصد تیمول و گاما-ترپینن در الگوی کشت مخلوط 1:1 تلقیح شده با میکوریزا حاصل شد. همچنین بیشترین مقادیر شاخص‌های زراعی (نسبت برابری زمین، نسبت برابر سطح زیرکشت و زمان، نسبت برابر سطح برداشت و کارایی استفاده از زمین) و شاخص‌های اقتصادی (سودمندی کشت، سودمندی اقتصادی کشت مخلوط و شاخص بهره‌وری سیستم) به‌ترتیب در الگوهای کشت 2:1 و 1:1 همراه با کاربرد کود زیستی مایکوروت بدست آمد. به‌طور کلی نتایج نشان داد که کود زیستی مایکوروت در کشت مخلوط به‌ویژه در الگوی کشت 1:1 به بهبود کمّیت و کیفیت اسانس آویشن باغی منجر شد.

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