اتنوبوتانی گیاهان دارویی منطقه راز و جرگلان در استان خراسان شمالی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

2 دانش آموخته دکترای فیزیولوژی گیاهی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

چکیده

اتنوبوتانی شاخه‌ای از دانش بومی است که به شناخت نقش گیاهان یک منطقه در دانش افراد بومی آن منطقه می‌پردازد و بازیابی سنت‌های غیرمکتوبی است که درخطر نابودی قرارگرفته است. ازاین‌رو مطالعه‌ای جهت شناسایی گیاهان دارویی منطقه راز و جرگلان و استفاده از دانش و تجربه اهالی بومی برای معرفی خواص و موارد ناشناخته گیاهان دارویی موردنظر انجام گرفت. اطلاعات مربوط به جنبه‌های مختلف گیاهان از قبیل مصارف سنتی، نحوه استفاده و زمان جمع‌آوری نمونه‌های گیاهی از افراد بومی باتجربه گردآوری شد. نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان داد، از تعداد 85 گونه گیاه دارویی، 14 گونه به تیره کاسنیان (Asteraceae) تعلق داشته و پس از آن تیره‌های نعناعیان (Lamiaceae) با 13 گونه و تیره چتریان (Apiaceae) با 11 گونه در رتبه‌های بعدی قرار گرفتند. گونه‌ شیرین‌بیان (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) با 201، آویشن (Thymus transcaspicus) با 191 و درمنه (Artemisia siberi Besser) با 178 به‌ترتیب بالاترین میزان گزارش استفاده (UR) را نشان دادند. درمنه با 0.77، شیرین‌بیان با 0.73 و آویشن با 0.69 بیشترین میزان شاخص فراوانی نسبی ثبت (RFC) را نیز به خود اختصاص دادند. پنج فرم زیستی شامل همی‌کریپتوفیت (38 گونه)، تروفیت (16 گونه)، فانروفیت (16 گونه)، کامفیت (11 گونه) و ژئوفیت (4 گونه) بین گونه‌ها مشاهده شد. بیشترین قسمت دارویی مورداستفاده گیاهان در این منطقه، اندام هوایی آنها بود و کاربرد عمده گیاهان دارویی به‌ترتیب به درمان بیماری‌های گوارشی، عمومی، تنفسی و پوستی تعلق داشت. در ارتباط با شاخص اجماع مطلعین (ICF) گروه بیماری‌های اسکلتی و عضلانی بیشترین میزان این شاخص (0.96) را در بین سایر گروه‌ها کسب کرد.

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