تأثیر روش‌های حاصلخیزی خاک بر عملکرد کمّی و روغن گیاه دارویی سیاه‌دانه (Nigella sativa L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا، گروه علوم زراعی و باغی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی و صنایع غذایی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار، بخش تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

3 استاد، بخش تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

4 استاد، گروه علوم زراعی و باغی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی و صنایع غذایی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

شناسه دیجیتال (DOR):
98.1000/1735-0905.1399.36.958.104.6.1578.41

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر روش‌های حاصلخیزی خاک بر عملکرد کمّی و روغن گیاه دارویی سیاه‌دانه (Nigella sativa L.) آزمایشی به‌صورت بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای مورد بررسی شامل سطوح مختلف کودهای شیمیایی ‏NPK‏، سطوح مختلف کود دامی، تلفیق کودهای ‏NPK‏ با کود دامی، تلفیق کودهای ‏شیمیایی و دامی همراه با تلقیح کود زیستی آزوریزوبیوم بود. نتایج نشان داد که با تغذیه گیاه، ارتفاع بوته، وزن خشک بوته، تعداد شاخه جانبی، شاخص سطح برگ، تعداد کپسول در بوته، تعداد دانه در کپسول، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد زیست توده، محتوای نسبی آب برگ، درصد روغن و عملکرد روغن افزایش پیدا کرد. در روش تغذیه شیمیایی، بالاترین خصوصیات کمّی و کیفی مربوط به کاربرد 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن، 96 کیلوگرم در هکتار فسفر و 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار پتاسیم بود. در تغذیه گیاهی با کود دامی از کاربرد 20 تن در هکتار کود دامی استفاده شد. در تغذیه گیاه به روش تلفیق کود شیمیایی و دامی تیمار 40 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن، 32 کیلوگرم فسفر و 40 کیلوگرم پتاسیم همراه با 30 تن در هکتار کود دامی بهترین تیمار بود. در تغذیه گیاهی به روش تلفیق شیمیایی، دامی و زیستی تیمار 30 تن در هکتار کود دامی همراه با آزوریزوبیوم در حضور 40 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن، 32 کیلوگرم فسفر و 40 کیلوگرم پتاسیم مناسب‌ترین تیمار مشاهده گردید. به‌طور کلی تیمار 40 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن، 32 کیلوگرم فسفر و 40 کیلوگرم پتاسیم همراه با 30 تن در هکتار کود دامی در کنار آزوریزوبیوم بیشترین تأثیر مثبت را در بهبود عملکرد و میزان روغن سیاه‌دانه داشت که از کمترین میزان کود شیمیایی برخوردار بود.

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