بررسی برخی خصوصیات فیتوشیمیایی گاوزبان ایرانی (Echium amoenum Fisch. & Mey.)تحت تأثیر تراکم گیاهی و کودهای آلی و شیمیایی مختلف

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، مجتمع آموزش عالی گناباد، مهندسی تولیدات گیاهی مجتمع آموزش عالی گناباد، خراسان رضوی، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران

3 دانشیار، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران

4 دانشجوی کارشناسی مهندسی تولیدات گیاهی، مجتمع آموزش عالی گناباد، خراسان رضوی، ایران

چکیده

به‎منظور بررسی اثر تراکم بوته و مقایسه نهاده‌های اکولوژیک و شیمیایی بر برخی خصوصیات کیفی گاوزبان ایرانی (Echium amoenum Fisch. & Mey.) آزمایشی در دو سال زراعی متوالی 91-1390 و 92-1391 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد به‌صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار انجام شد. کرت‎های اصلی و فرعی به‌ترتیب شامل 3 تراکم‌ کاشت (10، 5 و 3 بوته در مترمربع) و سه نوع کود آلی و یک نوع کود شیمیایی (کمپوست، ورمی‌کمپوست، کود گاوی، کود شیمیایی نیتروژن و شاهد) بودند. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که بیشترین میزان فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی در تراکم 10 بوته در مترمربع (79 میلی‌گرم در میلی‌لیتر) و بیشترین میزان فنول کل در تراکم 5 بوته در مترمربع (51 میلی‌گرم اسید گالیک در گرم وزن خشک گل) مشاهده شد. کودهای کمپوست، ورمی‌کمپوست، گاوی و شیمیایی در تراکم 10 بوته در مترمربع، میزان فنول کل را به‌ترتیب 51، 35، 40 و 63 درصد در مقایسه با شاهد افزایش دادند. کاربرد کودهای کمپوست و ورمی‌کمپوست در تراکم 3 بوته در مترمربع به‌ترتیب منجر به افزایش 39 و 38 درصدی میزان فلاونوئید کل نسبت به شاهد شد. بیشترین میزان آنتوسیانین کل در تراکم 5 بوته در مترمربع حاصل شد. کودهای ورمی‌کمپوست و گاوی به‌ترتیب افزایش 10 و 13 درصدی روغن دانه و افزایش 34 و 13 درصدی پروتئین دانه را در مقایسه با شاهد سبب شدند. به‌طور کلی با توجه به یافته‌های این پژوهش، به نظر می‎رسد با استفاده از نهاده‌های بوم‎سازگار و تعیین تراکم مطلوب گاوزبان ایرانی، می‌توان ضمن بهبود کیفیت و سلامت محصول، خسارتهای ناشی از نهاده‌های شیمیایی را به حداقل رساند.

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