تأثیر قارچ مایکوریزا بر برخی خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی و فیزیولوژیکی خارمریم (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) تحت تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گیاهان دارویی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

چکیده

تنش کمبود آب به‌طور دائم یا موقت، در رشد و توزیع پوشش طبیعی گیاهان بیشتر از سایر عوامل محیطی محدودکننده است. به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر قارچ‌های آربوسکولار مایکوریزا و تنش خشکی بر رشد و عملکرد گیاه خارمریم (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.)، آزمایشی گلدانی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کامل تصادفی در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه زابل در چاه نیمه انجام شد. تنش خشکی در سه سطح (آبیاری براساس 100% ظرفیت مزرعه به‌عنوان شاهد، 60% و 30% ظرفیت مزرعه) و سه گونه قارچ مایکوریزا Glomus mosseae، Glomus versiformis و Glomus intraradices و بدون تلقیح به‌عنوان شاهد بود. نتایج نشان داد که پس از آغاز تیمارهای خشکی، خصوصیات رویشی مانند تعداد کاپیتول، تعداد دانه در کاپیتول، وزن هزاردانه، تعداد و مساحت سطح برگ، طول ریشه، تعداد شاخه‌های فرعی، ارتفاع بوته، وزن خشک برگ، ساقه و ریشه با افزایش خشکی به‌طور معنی‌داری کاهش یافتند. محتوای نسبی آب برگ در اثر خشکی به شدت تحت تأثیر قرار گرفت و از 77.3 در شاهد به 57.01 در 30% FC کاهش یافت. همچنین با افزایش تنش خشکی میزان فسفر برگ کاهش و مقدار پتاسیم برگ افزایش یافت. در پاسخ به تنش خشکی، فرایندهای تنظیم اسمزی در گیاهان ماریتیغال فعال شد و میزان پرولین در برگ‌ها افزایش (بیشترین مقدار 0.13 میلی‌گرم بر گرم بافت در آبیاری 30% FC) یافت ولی درصد سیلیمارین در آبیاری کامل از 16.35% به 10.24% در آبیاری 30% FC کاهش یافت. تلقیح با قارچ مایکوریزا شاخص‌های رشد رویشی، درصد سیلیمارین (بیشترین میزان در کاربرد G. mosseae و کمترین در شاهد)، محتوای نسبی آب گیاه و محتوای فسفر و پتاسیم برگ گیاه خارمریم را در شرایط تنش خشکی در مقایسه با گیاهان تلقیح نشده به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش داد، ولی میزان پرولین برگ کمتر شد. به‌طور کلی، کاربرد قارچ میکوریزا سبب افزایش مقاومت به تنش خشکی در گیاه خارمریم شد.

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