مطالعه اثر تنش خشکی بر صفات فیزیولوژیک و عملکردی همیشه‌بهار (Calendula officinalis L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته دکترا در رشته زراعت، گروه پژوهشی گیاهان دارویی، جهاد دانشگاهی خراسان جنوبی، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند، ایران

چکیده

با توجه به اهمیت گیاه دارویی همیشه‌بهار (Calendula officinalis L.) در صنایع مختلف ازجمله داروسازی، در این مطالعه تأثیرات تنش خشکی بر برخی صفات فیزیولوژیک و عملکردی این گیاه دارویی بررسی شد. این آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار طی سال‌های 94-1393 در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی بیرجند انجام شد. فاکتورهای مورد مطالعه شامل تنش خشکی در چهار سطح (به‌ترتیب 80، 60، 40 و 20 درصد آب قابل‌استفاده خاک) و دو تیپ گیاه همیشه‌بهار (تیپ دارویی و تیپ زینتی) بود. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که با افزایش تنش، از میزان فعالیت آنزیم آسکوربات پروکسیداز کاسته شد و فعالیت دو آنزیم سوپراکسیددسموتاز و کاتالاز نیز در ابتدا افزایش و بعد کاهش یافت. تجمع بیش‌ازحد گونه‌های اکسیژن فعال (ROS) و ناکارآمدی سیستم آنتی‌اکسیدانی گیاه در مواجهه با آن احتمالاً دلیل کاهش فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدان در بالاترین سطح تنش بوده‌است. میزان پرولین با افزایش تنش افزایش یافت، به‌طوری‌که در بالاترین سطح تنش از 4 برابر شاهد نیز بیشتر بود. با افزایش خشکی، میزان کاروتنوئیدها، کلروفیل a و b نیز به‌دلیل خسارت به غشاهای کلروپلاستی کاهش یافت. تنش خشکی علاوه‌بر خسارت به غشاء سلولی که سبب افزایش میزان MDA شد، کارایی فتوسیستم II را نیز کاهش داد. تنش خشکی همچنین وزن خشک (27%)، ارتفاع (32%)، تعداد شاخه جانبی (33%)، تعداد گل (50%) و عملکرد گل (60%) همیشه‌بهار را نیز کاهش داد. همچنین مشخص شد که پتانسیل تولید گل تیپ دارویی همیشه‌بهار (824.3 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از تیپ زینتی آن (654.9 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بیشتر است. در کل می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که سیستم آنتی‌اکسیدانی آنزیمی همیشه‌بهار از توانایی خوبی برای کاهش اثرات نامطلوب تنش خشکی برخوردار است. از این‌رو چنانچه فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی همیشه‌بهار به نحوی افزایش یابد، احتمالاً توانایی این گیاه برای کاهش اثرات ناشی از تنش خشکی افزایش یافته و ممکن است منجر به بهبود عملکرد آن شود.

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