مقایسه عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دو گیاه دارویی شنبلیله (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) و گندم سیاه (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) تحت تأثیر کودهای آلی و شیمیایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، ایران

2 دانشیار، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، ایران

3 استادیار، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی پاسخ عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دو گیاه دارویی شنبلیله (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) و گندم سیاه (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) به کودهای آلی و شیمیایی، آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‎های‎ کامل تصادفی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه شهرکرد در دو سال متوالی (۱۳۹۳ و ۱۳۹۴) اجرا شد. عامل‎های آزمایش شامل دو گونه گیاه دارویی شنبلیله (لگوم) و گندم سیاه (غیرلگوم) و سه منبع مختلف کودی (کود شیمیایی، کود شیمیایی + کود آلی و کود آلی (کود مرغی)) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد کود آلی نسبت به کود شیمیایی در گندم سیاه موجب افزایش معنی‎دار ارتفاع بوته (17.76%) و تعداد شاخه جانبی (8%) در سال اول، تعداد دانه در خوشه‎ (28% و 19.53% به‎ترتیب در سال اول و دوم)، عملکرد دانه (40.24% و 26.57% به‎ترتیب در سال اول و دوم)، عملکرد بیولوژیک (34.66% و 47.74% به‎ترتیب در سال اول و دوم) و در گیاه شنبلیله باعث افزیش تعداد شاخه جانبی در بوته (8%) و عملکرد بیولوژیک (25%) در سال اول شد. از سوی دیگر ترکیب کودهای آلی با شیمیایی (50:50) در مقایسه با تیمار کود شیمیایی در گندم سیاه، موجب افزایش معنی‎دار ارتفاع بوته (10.35%، سال دوم)، عملکرد دانه (52.21% و 17.19% به‎ترتیب در سال اول و دوم)، عملکرد بیولوژیک (24.86% و 26.35% به‎ترتیب در سال اول و دوم)، شاخص برداشت (21.53%، سال اول) گردید. کود تلفیقی در شنبلیله تعداد شاخه جانبی (16.70%، سال اول) و عملکرد دانه (14.40%، سال دوم) را نسبت به کود شیمیایی افزایش داد. به‌طور کلی، برای تولید گیاهان دارویی گندم سیاه (غیرلگوم) کود آلی و کود آلی به‌علاوه کود شیمیایی جایگزین مناسبی برای کودهای شیمیایی است، اما برای تولید گیاه دارویی شنبلیله، جایگزینی کود آلی تنها عملکرد بیولوژیک را نسبت به کود شیمیایی افزایش می‎دهد.

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