تأثیر کودهای مختلف و تلفیق آنها بر برخی خصوصیات کمّی و کیفی گیاه دارویی ماریتیغال (Silybum marianum L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، ایران

2 استادیار، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، ایران

3 دانشیار، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، ایران

4 مربی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، ایران

5 مربی، پژوهشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، ایران

چکیده

ماریتیغال (Silybum marianum L.) گیاهی است یک‌ساله، از خانواده گل ستاره‌ای‌ها که خاک‌های سبک و حاصلخیز را ترجیح می‌دهد. مهمترین ترکیبی که از دانه‌های این گیاه استخراج می‌شود سیلی‌مارین نام دارد که در درمان امراض کبدی، هپاتیت، سیروز کبدی و پیشگیری از سرطان کبد کاربرد دارد. در سیستم‌های کشاورزی متداول هدف استفاده از کودهای مختلف و تلفیق آنها، بدست آوردن بیشترین عملکرد دانه و کیفیت مواد مؤثره است. به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر کودهای مختلف و تلفیق آنها بر برخی خصوصیات کمّی و کیفی ماریتیغال، در سال زراعی 1393-1392 طرح کرت‌های خرد شده در پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار و در مزرعه تحقیقاتی پژوهشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل اجرا شد. در این تحقیق عامل اصلی شامل ژنوتیپ مجارستان (A1) و توده مشهدی (A2) و عامل فرعی شامل کاربرد کودهای مختلف مانند تیمار شاهد، کود دامی، کود شیمیایی (اوره+ فسفات آمونیوم+ سولفات پتاسیم)، قارچ میکوریزا گلوموس‌موسه‌آ (Glomus mosseae)، ترکیب نیتروکسین، بیوسولفور و بیوسوپر فسفات، ترکیب کود شیمیایی و کود دامی، ترکیب قارچ میکوریزا و کود دامی و کود نانو کلات آهن بود. نتایج نشان داد، بین ژنوتیپ مجارستان و توده مشهد اختلاف معنی‌داری وجود نداشت. در مجموع قارچ میکوریزا گلوموس‌موسه‌آ (Glomus mosseae) بهترین تیمار در بین تیمارهای کودی در گیاه ماریتیغال بود و موجب افزایش رشد و فعالیت بهتر رنگریزه‌های فتوسنتزی گردید، همچنین باعث بهبود عملکرد دانه و افزایش سیلی‌مارین گیاه ماریتیغال شد.

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