اثر محلول‌پاشی منابع مختلف روی بر عملکرد و ویژگی‌های فیتوشیمیایی گیاه ریحان (Ocimum basilicum L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ایران

2 استاد، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ایران

3 استاد، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

روی یک عنصر ریزمغذی ضروری است که نقش‌های حیاتی زیادی در گیاهان دارد. در سال‌های اخیر نانو کودهای روی به‌دلیل جذب بیشتر آنها توسط گیاه که ناشی از اندازه کوچک و نفوذ بسیار بالای آنها از طریق غشاهای سلولی است مورد توجه بسیار قرار گرفته‌اند. به‌منظور مطالعه اثر کاربرد برگی کودهای مختلف حاوی روی بر عملکرد و ویژگی‌های فیتوشیمیایی گیاه ریحان (Ocimum basilicum L.)، یک آزمایش گلدانی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار در گلخانه تحقیقاتی گروه علوم باغبانی دانشگاه ارومیه در سال 1393 انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل سه منبع مختلف روی (سولفات روی، کلات روی و نانوکود کلات روی) در چهار مقدار (صفر، 1، 2 و 3 گرم در لیتر) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد برگی روی تأثیر معنی‌داری بر صفات مورد اندازه‌گیری داشته است. به‌طوری که با کاربرد روی عملکرد پیکر رویشی تر و خشک، محتوای روی و فنول برگ‌ها و درصد و عملکرد اسانس افزایش یافت و از این نظر کاربرد برگی نانوکود کلات روی مؤثرتر از دو کود دیگر روی بود. کمترین و بیشترین مقادیر صفات اندازه‌گیری شده به‌ترتیب در غلظت‌های صفر و سه گرم در لیتر مشاهده شد. براساس نتایج تجزیه اسانس به‌وسیله دستگاه‌های گاز کروماتوگرافی و گاز کروماتوگرافی متصل به طیف‌سنج جرمی، 20 ترکیب در اسانس ریحان شناسایی گردید. لینالول و اوژنول اجزاء اصلی اسانس بودند که تحت تأثیر کاربرد روی تغییرات ناچیزی را نشان دادند. در مجموع یافته‌های این تحقیق نشان داد که تأثیر کاربرد نانوکود کلات روی (به‌ویژه در مقدار 3 گرم در لیتر) در افزایش عملکرد و مواد مؤثره گیاه ریحان، مؤثرتر از کودهای سولفات و کلات روی بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


- Adams, R.P., 2007. Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Quadrupole Mass Spectroscopy. Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream, 803p.

- Akay, A., 2011. Effect of zinc fertilizer applications on yield and element contents of some registered chickpeas varieties. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(60): 12890-12896.

- Auld, D.S., 2001. Zinc coordination sphere in biochemical zinc sites. Biometals, 14(3): 271-313.

- Ayad, H.S., Reda, F. and Abdalla, M.S.A., 2010. Effect of putrescine and zinc on vegetative growth, photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation and essential oil content of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.). World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 6(5): 601-608.

- Baybordi, A., 2006. Zinc in Soil and Crop Nutrition. Parivar Press, 179p.

- Cakmak, I., 1988. Morphologische und Physiologische Veranderungen bei Zinkmangelpflanzen. Ph.D. thesis, University Hohenheim, Germany.

- Cakmak, I., 2000. Possible roles of zinc in protecting plant cells from damage by reactive oxygen species. New Phytologist, 146: 185-205.

- Cakmak, I. and Marschner, H., 1988. Increase in membrane permeability and exudation in roots of zinc deficient plants. Journal of Plant Physiology, 132: 356-361.

- Cakmak, I., Marschner, H. and Bangerth, F., 1989. Effect of zinc nutritional status on growth, protein metabolism and levels of Indole-3-acetic acid and other phytohormones in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Experimental Botany, 40: 405-412.

- Cakmak, I. and Engels, C., 1999. Role of mineral nutrients in photosynthesis and yield formation: 141-168. In: Rengel, Z., (Ed.). Mineral Nutrition of Crops: Fundamental Mechanisms and Implication. Haworth Press, New York, 418p.

- Charles, D.J. and Simon, J.E., 1990. Comparison of extraction methods for rapid determination of essential oil content and composition of basil. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 115(3): 458-462.

- Davies, N.N., 1990. Gas chromatographic retention indices of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes on methyl silicone and carbowax 20M phases. Journal of Chromatography, 503: 1-24.

- Derakhshani, Z., Hassani, A., Sefidkon, F., Rasouli-Sadaghiani, M.H., Hassanpouraghdam, M.B. and Gheibi, S.A., 2011a. Effects of soil and foliar application of zinc on some growth characteristics and essential oil of costmary (Tanacetum balsamita L.). Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 12(2): 99-110.

- Derakhshani, Z., Hassani, A., Rasouli-Sadaghiani, M.H., Hassanpouraghdam, M.B., Hosseini Khalifani, B. and Dalkani, M., 2011b. Effect of zinc application on growth and some biochemical characteristics of costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita L.). Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 42(20): 2493-2503.

- Eichert, T., Kurtz, A., Steiner, U. and Goldbach, H.E., 2008. Size exclusion limits and lateral heterogeneity of the stomatal foliar uptake pathway for aqueous solutes and water-suspended nanoparticles. Physiologia Plantarum, 134(1): 151-160.

- El-Sawi, S.A. and Mohamed, M.A., 2002. Cumin herb as a new source of essential oils and its response to foliar spray with some micro-elements. Food Chemistry, 77: 75-80.

- El-Sherbeny, S.E. and Abou Zeid, E.N., 1986. A Preliminary Study on the Effect of Foliar Micro Elements on Growth and Chemical Constituents in Foeniculum copillacum. Bull. NRC, Egypt, II, 606p.

- Emami, A., 1996. Leaf Analysis Methods. Technical Bulletin No. 982. Soil and Water Research Institute. Tehran, Iran.

- Fageria, N.K., Baligar, V.C. and Clark, R.B., 2002. Micronutrients in crop production. Advances in Agronomy, 77: 185-268.

- Figueiredo, A.C., Barroso, J.G., Pedro, L.G. and Scheffer, J.J.C., 2008. Factors affecting secondary metabolite production in plants: volatile components and essential oils. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 23: 213-226.

- Gerjtovský, A., Markusova, K. and Eliasova, A., 2006. The response of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) plants to soil zinc supply. Plant, Soil and Environment, 52(1): 1-7.

- Gibson, R.A., Schneider, E.A. and Wightman, F., 1972. Biosynthesis and metabolism of indol-3yl-acetic acid. II. In vivo experiments with C-labelled precursors of IAA in tomato and barley shoots. Journal of Experimental Botany, 23: 381-399.

- Hafeez, B., Khanif, Y.M. and Saleem, M., 2013. Role of zinc in plant nutrition-A review. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 3(2): 374-391.

- Hajiboland, R. and Amirazad, F., 2010. Growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant defense system in Zn-deficient red cabbage plants. Plant, Soil and Environment, 56: 209-217.

- Hassanpouraghdam, M.B., Gohari, G.R., Tabatabaei, S.J., Dadpour, M.R. and Shirdel, M., 2011. NaCl salinity and Zn foliar application influence essential oil composition of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 97(2): 93-98.

- Hertel, R., 1983. The mechanism of auxin transport as a model for auxin action. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenphysiologie, 112: 53-67.

- Kitagishi, K. and Obata, H., 1986. Effects of zinc deficiency on the nitrogen metabolism of meristematic tissues of rice plants with reference to protein synthesis. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 32: 397-405.

- Kumar, A., Patro, H.K. and Anand, K., 2010. Effect of zinc and sulphur on herb, oil yield and quality of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L.) var. Kosi. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2(4): 642-648.

- Lengke, F.M., Fleet, E.M. and Southam, G., 2007. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by filamentous Cyanobacteria a from a silver (I) nitrate complex. Langmuir, 23(5): 2694-2699.

- Luo, Z.B., He, X.J., Chen, L., Tang, L., Gao, S. and Chen, F., 2010. Effects of zinc on growth and antioxidant responses in Jatropha curcas seedlings. International Journal of Agricultural Biology, 12: 119-124.

- Malakoti, M.J. and Tehrani, M.M., 1999. Effects of Micronutrients on the Yield and Quality of Agricultural Products. Tarbiat Modarres University Publications, Tehran, Iran, 299p.

- Marinova, D., Ribarova, F. and Atanassova, M., 2005. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in Bulgarian fruits and vegetables. Journal of the University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 40(3): 255-260.

- Marschner, H., 1995. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 889p.

- Misra, A. and Sharma, S., 1991. Critical Zn concentration for essential oil yield and menthol concentration of Japanese mint. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 29(3): 261-265.

- Misra, A., Srivastava, A. K., Srivastava, N. K. and Khan, A., 2005. Zn-acquisition and its role in growth, photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments and biochemical changes in essential monoterpene oil(s) of Pelargonium graveolens. Photosynthetica, 43(1): 153-155.

- Moghimi Pour, Z., Mahmoodi Sourestani, M., Alamzade Ansari, N. and Ramezani, Z., 2014. Effects of foliar application of nano zinc chelate and zinc sulfate on chlorophyll content, photosynthetic parameters, essential oil content and yield of holy basil (Ocimum sanctum). 3rd National Congress on Medicinal Plants, Mashhad, Iran, 14-15 May: 266.

- Monica, R.C. and Cremonini, R., 2009. Nanoparticles and higher plants. Caryologia, 62(2): 161-165.

- Naderi, M.R. and Danesh-Shahraki, A., 2013. Nanofertilizers and their roles in sustainable agriculture. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 5(19): 2229-2232.

- Nasiri, Y., Zehtab-Salmasi, S., Nasrullahzadeh, S., Najafi, N. and Ghassemi-Golezani, K., 2010. Effects of foliar application of micronutrients (Fe and Zn) on flower yield and essential oil of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4(17): 1733-1737.

- Omidbaigi, R., 2006. Production and Processing of Medicinal Plants (Volume 3). Astan Ghods Razavi Publication, Mashhad, 397p.

- Pandey, A.C., Sanjay, S.S. and Yadav, R.S., 2010. Application of ZnO nanoparticles in influencing the growth rate of Cicer arietinum. Journal of Experimental Nanoscience, 6: 488-497.

- Panwar, J., Jain, N., Bhargaya, A., Akhtar, M.S. and Yun, Y.S., 2012. Positive effect of zinc oxide nanoparticels on tomato plants: A step towards developing “Nano-fertilizers”. Proceeding of 3rd International Conference on Environmental Research and Technology (ICERT), Penang, Malaysia, 30 May-1 June: 348-352.

- Prakash, V., 1990. Leafy Spices. CRC Press, 114p.

- Prasad, T.N.V.K.V., Sudhakar, P., Sreenivasulu, Y., Latha, P., Munaswamy, V., Raja Reddy, K., Sreeprasad, T.S., Sajanlal, P.R. and Pradeep, T., 2012. Effect of nanoscales zinc oxide on the germination, growth and yield of peanut. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 35: 905-927.

- Rezaei, M. and Abbasi, H., 2014. Foliar application of nano-chelate and non-nanochelate of zinc on plant
resistance physiological processes in cotton (Gossipium hirsutum L.). Iranian Journal of Plant Physiology, 4(4): 1137-1144.

- Said-Al Ahl, H.A.H. and Mahmoud, A.A., 2010. Effect of zinc and/or iron foliar application on growth and essential oil of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) under salt stress. Ozean Journal of Applied Sciences, 3(1): 97-111.

- Sharma, P.N., Tripathi, A. and Bisht, S.S., 1995. Zinc requirement for stomatal opening in cauliflower. Plant Physiology, 107: 751-756.

- Simon, J.E., Quinn, J. and Murray, R.G., 1990. Basil: A source of essential oil: 484-489. In: Janick, J. and Simon, J.E., (Eds.). Advances in New Crops. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

- Srivastava, N.K. Misra, A. and Sharma, S., 1997. Effect of zinc deficiency on net photosynthetic rate, 14C Partition, and oil accumulation in leaves of peppermint. Photosynthetica, 33(1): 71-79.

- Tarafdar, J.C., Raliya, R., Mahawar, H. and Rathore, I., 2014. Development of zinc nanofertilizer to enhance crop production in pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum). Agricultural Research, 3(3): 257-262.

- Tsui, C., 1948. The role of zinc in auxin synthesis in the tomato plant. American Journal of Botany, 27: 939-951.

- Venkatesan, S., Murugesan, S., Senthur Pandian, V.K. and Ganapathy, M.N.K., 2005. Impact of sources and doses of potassium on biochemical and green leaf parameters of tea. Food Chemistry, 90: 535-539.

- Vitosh, M.L., Warcnke, D.D. and Lucas, R.E., 1994. Secondary and Micronutrients for Vegetables and Field Crops. Michigan State University Extension Bulletin, E-486.