تأثیر سلنیوم بر برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیک گیاه دارویی بادرنجبویه (Melissa officinalis L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشگاه پیام نور، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد، گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشگاه پیام نور، ایران

چکیده

در این تحقیق، تأثیر کاربرد غلظت‌های مختلف سلنات سدیم (1/0، 1 و 10 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر) در محیط کشت هیدروپونیک و کاربرد برگی 10 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر این عنصر در شرایط مزرعه بر روی برخی از ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیک گیاه بادرنجبویه (Melissa officinalis L.) مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. کاربرد سلنیوم در غلظت 10 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر باعث کاهش وزن خشک شاخساره و ریشه در شرایط کشت هیدروپونیک شد. مهار رشد در این غلظت از سلنیوم نشان داد که افزایش غلظت کلروفیل a و b و فعالیت آنزیم کاتالاز در تیمار 10 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر سلنیوم نتوانستند مانع از افزایش مالون دی‌آلدئید به‌عنوان شاخص پراکسیداسیون غشاها در این گیاه شوند. ولی کاربرد غلظت‌های 1/0 و 1 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر سلنیوم در کشت هیدروپونیک نه تنها باعث اُفت رشد بادرنجبویه نشد، بلکه منجر به افزایش ذخیره سلنیوم در شاخساره شد. در مقایسه، نتایج آزمایش مزرعه نشان داد که همان غلظت 10 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر که در کاربرد ریشه‌ای در کشت هیدروپونیک باعث مهار رشد گردید، در کاربرد برگی توانست مقدار سلنیوم دانه و شاخساره و بیومس شاخساره را افزایش دهد. همچنین کاربرد برگی سلنیوم توانست باعث افزایش فعالیت آنزیم فنیل‌آلانین آمونیالیاز و افزایش غلظت فنل‌ها به‌عنوان ترکیب‌های آنتی‌اکسیدان، در برگها شود. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که محلول‌پاشی برگی سلنیوم در مقایسه با تغذیه ریشه‌ای آن از طریق کشت هیدروپونیک، رشد اندام هوایی، مقدار سلنیوم و فنل را در گیاه دارویی بادرنجبویه بیشتر بهبود می‌بخشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


- Boominathan, R. and Doran, P.M., 2002. Ni induced oxidative stress in roots of the Ni hyperaccumlator, Alyssum bertoloni. New Phytologist, 156: 202-205.

- Bradford, M.M., 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72: 248-254.

- Broadley, M.R., Alcock, J., Alford, J., Cartwright, P., Foot, I., Fairweather-Tait, S.J., Hart, D.J., Hurst, R., Knott, P., McGrath, S.P., Meacham, M.C., Norman, K., Mowat, H., Scott, P., Stroud, J.L., Tovey, M., Tucker, M., White, P.J., Young, S.D. and Zhao, F.J., 2010. Selenium biofortification of high-yielding winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by liquid or granular Se fertilisation. Plant and Soil, 332: 5-18.

- Cartes, P., Jara, A.A., Pinilla, L., Rosas, A. and Mora, M.L., 2010. Selenium improves the antioxidant ability against aluminium-induced oxidative stress in ryegrass roots. Annals of Applied Biology, 156: 297-307.

- de Souza, M.P., Pickering, I.J., Walla, M. and Terry, N., 2002. Selenium assimilation and volatilization from selenocyanate-treated Indian mustard and muskgrass. Plant Physiology, 128: 625-633.

- Diao, M., Ma, L., Wang, J.W., Cui, J.X., Fu, A.F. and Liu, H.Y., 2014. Selenium promotes the growth and photosynthesis of tomato seedlings under salt stress by enhancing chloroplast antioxidant defense system. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 33: 671-682.

- Djanaguiraman, M., Devi, D.D, Shanker, A.K, Sheeba, J.A. and Bangarusamy, U., 2005. Selenium an antioxidative protectant in soybean during senescence. Plant Soil, 272: 77-86.

- Djanaguiraman, M., Prasad, P.V.V. and Seppänen, M., 2010. Selenium protects sorghum leaves from oxidative damage under high temperature stress by enhancing antioxidant defense system. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 48: 999-1007.

- Elguera, J.C.T., Barrientos, E.Y. and Wrobel, K., 2013. Effect of cadmium (Cd (II)), selenium (Se (IV)) and their mixtures on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in Lepidium sativum.Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 35: 431-441.

- Feng, R., Weic, C. and Tu, S., 2013. The roles of selenium in protecting plants against abiotic stresses. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 87: 58-68.

- Freeman, J.L., Tamaoki, M., Stushnoff, C., Quinn, C.F., Cappa, J.J., Devonshire, J., Fakra, S.C., Marcus, M.A., McGrath, S.P., Hoewyk, D.V. and Pilon-Smits, E.A.H., 2010. Molec-ular mechanisms of selenium tolerance and hyperaccumulation in Stanleya pinnata. Plant Physiology, 153(4): 1630-1652.

- Giannopolitis, C.N. and Ries, S.K., 1977. Superoxide dismutase. I. occurrence in higher plants. Plant Physiology, 59: 309-314.

- Habibi, G., 2013. Effect of drought stress and selenium spraying on photosynthesis and antioxidant activity of spring barley. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 101: 167-177.

- Habibi, G., 2014. Role of trace elements in alleviating environmental stress: 313-331. In:Ahmad, P. and Rasool, S., (Eds.). Emerging Technologies and Management of Crop Stress Tolerance Biological Techniques. USA, Elsevier, 586p.

- Hasanuzzaman, M. and Fujita, M., 2011. Selenium pretreatment upregulates the antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification system and confers enhanced tolerance to drought stress in rapeseed seedlings. Biological Trace Element Research, 143: 1758-1776.

- Hayat, Q., Hayat, S., Irfan, M. and Ahmad, A., 2010. Effect of exogenous salicylic acid under changing environment: a review. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 68: 14-25.

- Hwang, M. and Ederer, G.M., 1975. Rapid hippurate hydrolysis method for presumptive identification of group streptococci. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1: 114-115.

- Johnson, C.M., Stout, P.R., Broyer, T.C. and Carlton, A.B., 1957. Comparative chlorine reguirements of different plant species. Plant Soil, 8: 337-353.

- Łabanowska, M., Filek, M., Ko´scielniak, J., Kurdziel, M., Kuli´s, E. and Hartikainen, H., 2012. The effects of short-term selenium stress on Polish and Finnish wheat seedlings, enzymatic and fluorescence studies. Journal of Plant Physiology, 169: 275-284.

- Lichtenthaler, H.K. and Wellburn, A.R., 1985. Determination of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf in different solvents. Biochemical Society Transactions, 11: 591-592.

- Li, H.F., McGrath, S.P. and Zhao, F.J., 2008. Selenium uptake, translocation and speciation in wheat supplied with selenate or selenite. New Phytologist, 178: 92-102.

- Liu, K.L. and Gu, Z.X., 2009. Selenium accumulation in different brown rice cultivars and its distribution in fractions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57: 695-700.

- Malik, J.A., Goel, S., Kaur, N., Sharma, S., Singh, I. and Nayyar, H., 2012. Selenium antag-onises the toxic effects of arsenic on mungbean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) plants by restricting its uptake and enhancing the antioxidative and detoxification mechanisms. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 77: 242-248.

- Mavi, A., Terzi, Z. and Ozgen, U., 2004. Antioxidant properties of some medicinal plants: Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae), Sedum sempervivoides (Crassulaceae), Malva neglecta (Malvaceae), Cruciata taurica (Rubiaceae), Rosa pimpinellifolia (Rosaceae), Galium verum subsp. Verum (Rubiaceae), Urtica dioica (Urticaceae). Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 27: 702-705.

- Moradkhani, H., Sargsyan, E., Bibak, H., Naseri, B., Sadat-Hosseini, M., Fayazi-Barjin, A. and Meftahizade, H., 2010. Melissa officinalis L., a valuable medicine plant: A review. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4(25): 2753-2759.

- Mroczek-Zdyrska, M. and Wójcik, M., 2012. The influence of selenium on root growth and oxidative stress induced by lead in Vicia faba L. minor plants. Biological Trace Element Research, 147(1): 320-328.

- Nawaz, F., Ahmad, R., Ashraf, M.Y., Waraich, E.A. and Khan, S.Z., 2015. Effect of selenium foliar spray on physiological and biochemical processes and chemical constituents of wheat under drought stress. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 113: 191-200.

- Paciolla, C., De Leonardis, S. and Dipierro, S., 2011. Effects of selenite and selenate on the antioxidant systems in Senecio scandens L. Plant Biosystems, 145(1): 253-259.

- Proietti, P., Nasini, L., Buono, D.D., Amato, R. and Daniela T.E., 2013. Selenium protects olive (Olea europaea L.) from drought stress. Scientia Horticulturae, 164: 165-171.

- Ramos, S.J., Faquin, V., Guilherme, L.R.G., Castro, E.M., Ávila, F.W., Carvalho, G.S., Bastos, C.E.A. and Oliveira, C., 2010. Selenium biofortification and antioxidant activity in lettuce plants fed with selenate and selenite. Plant, Soil and Environment, 56(12): 584-588.

- Rios, J.J., Blasco, B., Cervilla, L.M., Rosales, M.A., Sanchez-Rodriguez, E., Romero, L. and Ruiz, J.M., 2009. Production and detoxification of H2O2 in lettuce plants exposed to selenium. Annals of Applied Biology, 154: 107-116.

- Sarikurkcu, C., Tepe, B. and Yamac, M., 2008. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of four edible mushrooms from the Central Anatolia, Eskisehir-Turkey: Lactarius deterrimus, Suillus collitinus, Boletus edulis, Xerocomus chrysenteron. Bioresource Technology, 99: 6651-6655.

- Simon, L.M., Fatrai, Z., Jonas, D.E. and Matkovics, B., 1974. Study of peroxide metabolism enzymes during the development of Phaseolus vulgaris. Biochem Physiol Pflanzen, 166: 387-392.

- Turakainen, M., Hartikainen, H. and Seppänen, M.M., 2004. Effects of selenium treatments on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) growth and concentrations of soluble sugars and starch. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52: 5378-5382.

- Wu, L., 2004. Review of 15 years of research on ecotoxicology and remediation of land contaminated by agricultural drainage sediment rich in selenium. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 57: 257-269.

- Yao, X., Chu, J., He, X. and Ba, C., 2011. Protective role of selenium in wheat seedlings subjected to enhanced UV-B radiation. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 58(2): 283-289.

- Yao, X.Q., Chu, J.Z. and Ba, C.J., 2010. Responses of wheat roots to exogenous selenium supply under enhanced ultraviolet-B. Biological Trace Element Research, 137(2): 244-252.

- Zucker, M., 1965. Induction of phenylalanine deaminase by light, its relation to chlorogenic acid synthesis in potato tuber tissue. Physiologia Plantarum, 40: 779-784.