تأثیر باکتری‌های تثبیت‌کننده نیتروژن و کود دامی بر عملکرد دانه و اسانس گیاه دارویی سیاهدانه (Nigella sativa L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد رودهن، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد رودهن، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر کودهای زیستی تأمین‌کننده نیتروژن و کود دامی بر عملکرد و اسانس گیاه دارویی سیاهدانه (Nigella sativa L.)، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی‌ شرکت کشاورزی ران در منطقه فیروزکوه در سال زراعی 1391 اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل کود دامی در چهار سطح (عدم مصرف، 5/2، 5 و 5/7 تن در هکتار) و باکتری‌های تثبیت‌کننده نیتروژن در چهار سطح (عدم تلقیح، تلقیح با ازتوباکتر، تلقیح با آزوسپیریلوم و تلقیح توأم با ازتوباکتر و آزوسپیریلوم) بودند. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش نشان داد که بیشترین ارتفاع بوته (8/47 سانتی‌متر)، درصد اسانس در دانه (14/0%) و عملکرد اسانس (31/768 گرم در هکتار) در کاربرد 5/7 تن کود دامی در هکتار بدست آمد، در حالی‌که بیشترین عملکرد زیستی (16/1829 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و عملکرد دانه (22/556 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از تیمار پنج تن کود دامی در هکتار حاصل شد. کمترین میزان صفات مورد بررسی از تیمار شاهد یا عدم مصرف کود دامی بدست آمد. بیشتر صفات تحت تأثیر مثبت و معنی‌دار تلقیح بذر با باکتری‌های ازتوباکتر و آزوسپیریلوم قرار گرفتند. بیشترین ارتفاع (61/49 سانتی‌متر)، عملکرد دانه (41/553 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، شاخص برداشت (71/37%)، عملکرد زیستی (21/1697 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و عملکرد اسانس (09/664 گرم در هکتار) از تلقیح توأم بذر با ازتوباکتر و آزوسپیریلوم بدست آمد. کمترین مقادیر نیز از تیمار شاهد یا عدم تلقیح بذر با باکتری‌های تثبیت‌کننده نیتروژن بدست آمد.

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