عملکرد کمّی و کیفی کنگرفرنگی (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus (L.) Fiori) تحت تأثیر تراکم بوته و رقابت علف‌های هرز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای زراعت، گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 استاد، گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

شناسه دیجیتال (DOR):
98.1000/1735-0905.1398.35.819.97.5.1593.1586

به‎منظور بررسی تأثیر تراکم کاشت بر ویژگی‌های کمّی و کیفی کنگرفرنگی (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus L.Fiori) در شرایط حضور و عدم حضور علف‌های هرز، یک آزمایش مزرعه‎ای در سال 1395 در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس انجام شد. آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. عوامل مورد بررسی در این آزمایش شامل چهار تراکم کاشت (2، 4، 6 و 8 بوته در مترمربع) در دو شرایط وجود و عدم وجود علف هرز بودند. در این مطالعه صفات مختلفی شامل تعداد برگ در بوته، شاخص سطح برگ، وزن خشک کل، کلروفیل a و b و کل، کافئیک اسید و کلروژنیک اسید اندازه‌گیری شدند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس داده‌ها نشان داد که تعداد برگ، وزن تر و وزن خشک کنگرفرنگی به‌طور معنی‌داری تحت تأثیر تراکم بوته و رقابت علف‌های هرز قرار گرفتند. به‌طوری که رقابت علف‌های هرز وزن خشک کنگرفرنگی را 4/22% کاهش داد. بیشترین شاخص سطح برگ (29/2) و وزن خشک کنگرفرنگی (44/253 گرم در مترمربع) در تراکم 6 بوته در مترمربع حاصل شد، در حالی‌که بیشترین تعداد برگ در بوته (16.33) متعلق به تراکم 2 بوته در مترمربع بود. در میان صفات کیفی، کلروفیل a، b و کل فقط تحت تأثیر تیمار علف هرز و عملکرد کافئیک اسید، کلروژنیک اسید و پلی‌فنول تام تحت تأثیر تراکم کاشت قرار گرفتند. اثر تراکم بوته کنگرفرنگی بر سطح برگ و وزن خشک علف‌های هرز نیز معنی‌دار بود. در مجموع بیشترین عملکرد متابولیت‎های ثانویه اصلی در کنگرفرنگی شامل کافئیک اسید، کلروژنیک اسید و پلی‌فنول تام به‌ترتیب برابر 5.99، 9.55 و 5.89 گرم در مترمربع از تراکم 6 بوته در مترمربع حاصل شد که به‌طور کامل تحت تأثیر عملکرد ماده خشک قرار داشتند.

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