تأثیر تنش خشکی و مقادیر کود نیتروژنه بر میزان و عملکرد اسانس و برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیکی گیاه دارویی ریحان (Ocimum basilicum L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد کلیبر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کلیبر، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر تنش خشکی و نیتروژن بر میزان و عملکرد اسانس و برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیکی گیاه ریحان (Ocimum basilicum L.)، آزمایشی به‌صورت طرح کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اردبیل در سال 1392 انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل سه سطح تنش خشکی (70، 140 و 210 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A) و کود نیتروژن در سه سطح (صفر، 50 و 100 کیلو‌گرم در هکتار) بودند. نتایج حاصل از آزمایش نشان داد که تأثیر تیمار تنش خشکی بر تمامی ویژگی‌های مورد بررسی معنی‌دار بود. نتایج نشان داد که برهم‌کنش تنش خشکی و کود نیتروژن بر ویژگی‌های کلروفیل a، کلروفیل کل، محتوای نسبی آب، عملکرد ماده خشک و عملکرد اسانس معنی‌دار بود. همچنین تیمار کودی سبب افزایش معنی‌دار ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد ماده خشک گیاه گردید. نتایج مقایسه میانگین برهم‌کنش تیمارها مشخص کرد که بیشترین میزان کلروفیل a (2.65میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن تر)، کلروفیل کل (3.42 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن تر)، محتوای نسبی آب (72.02%)، عملکرد ماده خشک (2261.25 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و عملکرد اسانس (7.21 کیلوگرم در هکتار) مربوط به تیمار بدون تنش و مصرف 100 کیلوگرم کود نیتروژنه در هکتار، بیشترین میزان کربوهیدرات‌ (3.41 میکروگرم گلوگز در گرم وزن تر) و پرولین (0.681 میکرومول در گرم وزن تر) مربوط به تیمار تنش شدید بود. با بالا رفتن سطح تنش خشکی از میزان کلروفیل a، b، کل، کاروتنوئید، محتوای نسبی آب، درصد و عملکرد اسانس کاسته و بر میزان کربوهیدرات و پرولین افزوده شد. بنابراین، آبیاری 70 میلی‌متر تبخیر و مصرف 100 کیلوگرم کود نیتروژنه در هکتار به‌عنوان تیمار برتر برای دستیابی به بالاترین میزان کلروفیل a، کلروفیل کل، محتوای نسبی آب، عملکرد ماده خشک و عملکرد اسانس ریحان توصیه می‌شود.

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