بررسی کاربرد میکوریز بر صفات فیزیولوژیکی گیاه کتان (Linum usitatissimum L.) تحت تنش فرابنفش

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه ارومیه، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه ارومیه، ایران

3 استادیار، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی آذربایجان‌غربی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

در بین انواع مختلف میکوریز، میکوریز آربوسکولار، رایج‌ترین نوع همزیستی مسالمت‌آمیز بین میکروارگانیسم‌های خاکزی و گیاهان می‌باشد که اهمیت اکولوژیک و اقتصادی فراوانی دارد. پرتو UV به‌دلیل افزایش تولید گونه‌های فعال اکسیژن به‌عنوان یک عامل ایجادکننده‌ تنش‌های اکسایشی شناخته شده‌است. موضوع این تحقیق بررسی کاربرد میکوریز بر صفات فیزیولوژیکی گیاه کتان (Linum usitatissimum L.) تحت تنش فرابنفش بود. گیاهان کتان در دو گروه میکوریزی و غیرمیکوریزی در شرایط 16 ساعت روشنایی و 8 ساعت تاریکی با دمای محیطی 18 تا 29 درجه سانتی‌گراد کشت داده شدند. گیاهان میکوریزی با مایه تلقیح حاصل از کشت Glomus etunicatum و Glomus versiforme آغشته شدند. 21 روز بعد از کشت، یک سری از گلدان‌ها به‌عنوان شاهد انتخاب شده و بقیه به مدت 14 روز و هر روز به مدت 1 ساعت تحت تنش UV-B (با طول موج 312 نانومتر) قرار گرفتند. این آزمایش در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی شامل سه تیمار میکوریزی (دارای G. etunicatum، G. versiforme و بدون میکوریزا)، دو تیمار UV (با UV و بدون UV) و سه تکرار انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که میزان رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی، میزان قند محلول و میزان پروتئین محلول در گیاهان تحت تیمار UV-B نسبت به شاهد کاهش یافت و این کاهش در نمونه‌های میکوریزی کمتر از نمونه‌های غیرمیکوریزی بود. از سوی دیگر، فعالیت آنزیم‌های پاداُکسایشی تحت تأثیر تابش فرابنفش افزایش یافت؛ به‌نحوی که این افزایش در گیاهان میکوریزی بیشتر از نمونه‌های غیرمیکوریزی بود. همچنین آنالیز داده‌ها نشان داد که میزان مالون‌دی‌آلدئید در گیاهان تحت تابش UV-B نسبت به شاهد افزایش یافت. این افزایش در نمونه‌های میکوریزی کمتر از نمونه‌های غیرمیکوریزی بود. بنابراین با بررسی مطالب فوق نتیجه‌گیری شد که پرتو UV-B اثرات زیان‌باری بر روی رقم شاهین‌دژ دارد و همزیستی میکوریزی با دو گونه قارچی فوق می‌تواند از برخی جهات این تنش را تا حدودی تخفیف دهد. همچنین مشاهده شد که تأثیر مثبت همزیستی در حضور گونه Glomus versiforme بهتر از گونه Glomus etunicatum می‌باشد.

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