تأثیر کودهای آلی و شیمیایی بر عملکرد دانه، اجزای عملکرد و کیفیت روغن خرفه (Portulaca oleracea L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر کودهای آلی و شیمیایی بر خصوصیات عملکرد و کیفیت محصول خرفه، آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه شهرکرد در سال 1393 اجرا شد. تیمارهای مختلف کودی شامل 13 تن در هکتار کود مرغی (BLn)، 4/14 تن در هکتار کود مرغی (BLp)، 39 تن در هکتار کود گاوی (CMn)، 87/16 تن در هکتار کود گاوی+ 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار اوره (CMp+U)، چهار سطح کود شیمیایی برابر تیمارهای آلی، 260+86 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌ترتیب اوره و سوپرفسفات تریپل (BLn) CF، 287+100 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌ترتیب اوره و سوپرفسفات تریپل (BLp) CF، 260+200 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌ترتیب اوره و سوپرفسفات تریپل (CMn) CF، 260+100 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌ترتیب اوره و سوپرفسفات تریپل (CMp+U) CF و شاهد (عدم مصرف کود) (C) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تفاوت معنی‎داری در ارتفاع بوته تیمار (BLn) CF (43/55 سانتی‎متر) با تیمارهای شیمیایی (BLp) CF، (CMn) CF و تیمارهای آلی BLn و BLp وجود نداشت. برای تعداد دانه در کپسول نیز تیمارهای BLp و BLn (به‌ترتیب 48/180 و 78/167 دانه) اختلاف معنی‎داری با هم نشان ندادند. همچنین وزن هزاردانه در تیمارهای BLp، BLn و CMn به‌ترتیب با میانگین 44/0، 43/0 و 42/0 گرم اختلاف معنی‎داری با هم نداشتند، همین‎طور تیمارهای CMn، (BLn) CF و CMp+U نیز تفاوت معنی‎داری را در وزن هزاردانه نشان ندادند. عملکرد دانه، میزان روغن و عملکرد روغن تیمار BLp افزایش معنی‎داری نسبت به سایر کرت‎های دریافت‌کننده کود و شاهد (عدم مصرف کود) داشت. میزان امگا-3 در تیمارهای BLp و BLn به‌ترتیب 85% و 79% بیشتر از تیمار شاهد (عدم مصرف کود) بود. به‌طور کلی، استفاده از کود مرغی علاوه بر افزایش قابل ملاحظه عملکرد دانه خرفه می‌تواند در افزایش کیفیت روغن این گیاه دارویی نیز مؤثر باشد.

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