تأثیر محلول‌پاشی نانو ذرات سیلیسیم بر برخی شاخص‌های مورفولوژیک و بیوشیمیایی گیاه گشنیز (Coriandrum sativum L.) در شرایط تنش فلز سنگین سرب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی شیمی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

سیلیسیم دومین عنصر فراوان در کره زمین می‌باشد که می‌تواند اثرات مضر فلزات سنگین را تخفیف دهد. به‌منظور بررسی اثر تغذیه با سطوح نانوذرات سیلیسیم بر شاخص‌های رشدی و فیزیولوژی گیاه گشنیز (Coriandrum sativum L.) در شرایط تنش سرب، یک آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تکرار در گلخانه دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی با رطوبت نسبی 40 تا 50% و میانگین شدت نور 434 لوکس در سال زراعی 96-1395 انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل آلودگی خاک توسط محلول کلرید سرب در غلظت‌های شاهد، 500، 1000 و 1500 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم و محلول‌پاشی با نانو ذرات سیلیسم (0، 5/1 و 3 میلی‌مولار) بود. شاخص‌های مورفولوژیک مانند ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد برگ، سطح برگ، وزن تر و خشک بخش هوایی و ریشه، قطر ریشه و ساقه و شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیک شامل رنگریزه‌های فتوسنتزی، نشت غشاء، محتوی آب نسبی و شاخص‌های بیوشیمیایی شامل پرولین، کربوهیدرات محلول، فنل کل و ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدان اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که تنش سرب بسیاری از صفات مورفولوژیک گیاه گشنیز مانند ارتفاع، وزن تر و خشک گیاه، قطر ریشه و ساقه را به‌طور معنی‌داری کاهش داد، به‌طوری که با افزایش سطح سرب به‌ترتیب سبب کاهش 57، 50، 20، 41، 15، 42 و 25 درصدی در صفات وزن تک بوته، وزن ریشه، قطر طوقه، قطر ریشه، طول ریشه، ارتفاع گیاه، سطح برگ و درصد ماده خشک برگ شد، اما تیمار محلول‌پاشی با 3 میلی‌مولار نانوذرات سیلیسیم در بیشتر صفات مرفولوژیک موجب بهبود شرایط رشدی گیاه گشنیز در شرایط تنش گردید. به‌طوری که با افزایش غلظت سرب میزان کلروفیل a و b، کلروفیل کل، کاروتنوئید و کربوهیدرات کل کاهش یافتند اما تیمار سیلیسیم سبب افزایش میزان آنها در گیاهان تحت تنش شد، درحالی که میزان پرولین، فنل و ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی با افزایش غلظت تا 1500 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم سرب به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت. به‌طور کلی می‌توان نتیجه‌گیری کرد که برای گیاه گشنیز استفاده از نانو ذرات سیلیسیم می‌تواند اثرات منفی تنش سرب را تا حد قابل قبولی کاهش دهد.

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