اثرات غلظت‌های مختلف سرب و مس بر مقدار مالون‌دآلدهید، پرولین و فعالیت آنزیم‌های پراکسیداز و کاتالاز در گیاه دارویی خرفه (Portulaca oleracea L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد گرگان

2 کارشناس ارشد علوم گیاهی، دانشگاه پیام‌نور، مرکز تهران

چکیده

گیاه خرفه (Portulaca oleracea L.) متعلق به تیره Portulacaceae، عموماً به‌عنوان علف هرز شناخته شده و از نقطه نظر فیزیولوژیکی دارای قابلیت تحمل‌پذیری بسیار بالا در محیط‌های شور یا آلوده به فلزات سنگین بوده و گیاه مناسبی جهت کاشت و پالایش محیط و خاک از این گونه تنش‌ها به‌شمار می‌رود. به‌منظور نشان دادن اثرات دو فلز سنگین سرب و مس بر مالون‌دآلدهید، پرولین و آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدان آزمایشهایی در طرحی کاملاً تصادفی اجرا شد. بدین منظور پس از کاشت گیاهان با شرایط یکسان در بستر استریل لیکا و تغذیه آنها با محلول غذایی هوگلند، تیمارهایی با غلظت‌های متفاوت (0، 10، 50، 100، 500، 1000، 1500 میکرومولار) از نمک دو فلز سنگین سرب (Pb(NO3)2) و مس (CuSO4.5H2O) به‌صورت جداگانه و همگی در سه تکرار به گیاهان اعمال گردید. پس از ده روز اعمال تیمار گیاهان جهت انجام آزمایشها برداشت شدند. نتایج نشان داد که جذب فلزات سرب و مس در تیمارهای دارای غلظت بالا در مقایسه با نمونه شاهد افزایش دارد. میزان جذب اتمی این عناصر در نمونه‌های ریشه بیشتر از اندام هوایی بود. میزان مالون‌دآلدهید در اندام هوایی و ریشه هر دو تنش سرب و مس از نمونه شاهد به سمت غلظت‌های بالا به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت. میزان اسید آمینه پرولین در هر دو تنش سرب و مس و هر دو قسمت اندام هوایی و ریشه به‌طور معنی‌دار روند افزایشی داشت. فعالیت آنزیم پراکسیداز در هر دو تنش سرب و مس و هر دو قسمت اندام هوایی و ریشه روند افزایشی و آنزیم کاتالاز روند کاهشی را به‌طور معنی‌دار نشان داد. به‌طور کلی میزان مالون‌دآلدهید، پرولین و فعالیت آنزیم پراکسیداز در نمونه‌های ریشه بیشتر از اندام هوایی بود و این نتیجه نشان داد که ریشه در گیاه خرفه جمع‌کننده عمده فلزات سنگین سرب و مس است. کمتر بودن فعالیت آنزیم کاتالاز در ریشه نسبت به اندام هوایی، حساسیت این آنزیم را نسبت به تجمع زیاد سرب و مس در ریشه اثبات نمود.

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