اثر نیتریک اکسید بر فیزیولوژی و متابولیت‌های ثانویه گیاه دارویی ریحان (Ocimum basilicum L.) در شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

شناسه دیجیتال (DOR):
98.1000/1735-0905.1398.35.601.96.4.1575.1610

تنش خشکی به‌عنوان یکی از مهمترین تنش غیرزیستی نقش زیادی در کاهش عملکرد گیاهان دارویی دارد. به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر نیتریک اکسید بر خصوصیات مورفوفیزیولوژیک و بیوشیمیایی گیاه ریحان (Ocimum basilicum L.) توده بومی شهرری در شرایط تنش خشکی آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. فاکتورهای مورد آزمایش شامل تنش خشکی (شاهد (آبیاری کامل) و قطع آبیاری در مرحله ابتدای گلدهی و 50% گلدهی) و محلول‌پاشی نیتریک اکسید به‌صورت سدیم نیتروپروساید در غلظت‌های 0.5، 1 و 2 میلی‌مولار بودند. در تیمار شاهد نیز گیاهان با آب مقطر اسپری برگی شدند. نتایج نشان داد با افزایش شدت تنش خشکی ارتفاع بوته، وزن خشک گیاه، کلروفیل a، کلروفیل b، کلروفیل کل و کاروتنوئید و محتوای آب نسبی کاهش معنی‌داری یافت و میزان نشت الکترولیت، محتوای پرولین برگ و درصد اسانس افزایش یافت. محلول‌پاشی با نیتریک اکسید، باعث افزایش رشد گیاه ریحان در شرایط تنش خشکی شد و بیشترین بهبود رشد در اثر محلول‌پاشی غلظت 2 میلی‌مولار از نیتریک اکسید حاصل گردید. با افزایش تنش خشکی و غلظت نیتریک اکسید مقدار ترکیب‌های اسانس افزایش یافت. عمده‌ترین ترکیب‌های اسانس ریحان در این آزمایش شامل متیل کاویکول، لینالول، ژرانیال، ژرانیول، آلفا-پینن، بتا-پینن و میرسن بودند. به‌طور کلی نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد که محلول‌پاشی نیتریک اکسید در شرایط تنش خشکی با ایجاد تنظیم اسمزی، جلوگیری از تجزیه کلروفیل و حفظ محتوای آب برگ در بهبود رشد گیاه ریحان مؤثر می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


- Abreu, I.N. and Mazzafera P., 2005. Effect of water and temperature stress on the content of active contitiuents of Hypercium brasiliense Choisy. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 43: 241-248.

- Aliabadi Farahani, H., Valadabadi, S.A., Daneshian, J. and Khalvati, M.A., 2009. Evaluation changing of essential oil of balm (Melissa officinalis L.) under water deficit stress conditions. Journal of Medical Plant Research. 3: 329-333.

- Arnon, D.I., 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts, polyphenoloxidases in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology, 24: 1-15.

- Ashiri, F., Khoskhoi, M., Saharkhiz, M., Firouzi, O. and Javidnia, K., 2010. Effects of water deficit stress on morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and peroline contents and antioxidant activity of garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 11: 163-174.

- Ashraf, M. and Foolad, M.R., 2007. Roles of glycine, betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 59: 206-216.

- Bahreininejad, B., Razmjoo, J. and Mirza, M., 2014. Effect of water stress on productivity and essential oil content and composition of Thymus carmanicus. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 17(5): 717-725.

- Bannayan, M., Nadjafi, F., Azizi, M., Tabrizi, L. and Rastgoo, M., 2008. Yield and seed quality of Plantago ovata and Nigella sativa under different irrigation treatments. Industrial Crops and Products, 27: 11-16.

- Bates, L.S., Waldern, R.P. and Teare, I.D., 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39(1): 205-207.

- Bertamini, M., Zulini, L., Muthuchelian, K. and Nedunchezhian, N., 2006. Effects of water deficit on photosynthetic and other physiological responses in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Riesling) plants. Photosyntetica, 44: 151-154.

- Bettaieb, I., Knioua, S., Hamrouni, I., Limam, F. and Marzouk, B., 2011. Water deficit impact on fatty acid and essential oil composition and antioxidant activities of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) aerial parts. Journal of Agriculture and Food, 59: 328-334.

- Chalchat, J.C. and Ozcan, M.M., 2008. Comparative essential oil composition of flowers, leaves and stems of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) used as herb. Food Chemistry, 110: 501-503.

- De Ridder, N. and Van Keulen, H., 1995. Estimating biomass through transfer functions based on a simulation model results: a case study for Sahel. Agricultural Water Management, 28: 57-71.

- Devnarain, N., Crampton, B.G., Chikwamba, R., Becker, J.V.W. and O'Kennedy, M.M., 2016. Physiological responses of selected African sorghum landraces to progressive water stress and re-watering. South African Journal of Botany, 103:
61-69.

- Din, J., Khan, S.U., Ali, I. and Gurmani, A.R., 2011. Physiology and agronomic response of canola varieties to drought stress. Journal of Animal and Plant Science, 21: 78-82.

- Esmaielpour, B., Hadian, J. and Jalilvand, P., 2013. Effects of drought stress and mycorizha on morpho-physiological and yield of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.). Journal of Agroecology, 5: 169-177.

- Farooq, M., Basra, S.M.A., Wahid, A. and Rehman, H., 2009. Exogenously applied nitric oxide enhances the drought tolerance in fine grain aromatic rice. Journal of Agronomy & Crop Science, 195: 254-261.

- Frohlich, a. and Durner, J., 2011. The hunt for plant nitric oxide synthase (NOS): is one really needed? Plant Science, 181: 401-404.

- Gan, L., Wu, X. and Zhong, Y., 2015. Exogenously applied nitric oxide enhances the drought tolerance in hulless barley. Plant Production Science, 18: 52-56.

- Hayat, S., Yadav, S., Wani, A., Irfan, M., and Ahmad, A., 2011. Nitric Oxide Effects on Photosynthetic Rate, Growth and Antioxidant Activity in Tomato. International journal of vegetable science, 17: 333-348.

- Hendawy, S.F., Hussein, M.S., Youssef, A.A. and EL-Mergawi, R.A., 2013. Respnse of Silybum marianum plant to irrigation intervals combined with fertilization. Nusant Ara Bioscience, 5: 22-29.

- Hussain, M., Malik, M.A., Farooq, M., Ashraf, M.Y. and Cheema, M.A., 2008. Improving drought tolerance by exogenous application of glycinebetaine and salicylic acid in sunflower. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 194: 193-199.

- Izadi, Z., Asnaashari, M. and Ahmadvand, G., 2009. Influence of drought

tension on yield, proline contents, soluble sugars, chlorophyll, relative water contents and essential oil in peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 10: 223-234.

- Jaleel, C.A., Manivannan, P. and Wahid, A., 2009. Drought stress in plants: a review on morphological characteristics and pigments composition. International journal of Agriculture and Biology, 11: 100-105.

- Keshavarz Afshar, R., Hashemi, M., DaCosta, M., Spargo, J. and Sadeghpour, A., 2016. Biochar application and drought stress effect on physiological characteristics of Silybum marianum. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 47: 743-752.

- Khalid, K.A., 2006. Influence of water stress on growth, essential oil and chemical composition of herbs (Ocimum sp.). International Agrophyiscs, 20: 289-296.

- Kim, J.H. and Lee, C.H., 2005. In vivo deleterious effects specific to reactive oxygen species on photosystem II after photooxidative treatment of rice leaves. Plant Science, 168: 1115-1125.

- Klimankova, E., Holadova, K., Hajslova, J., Cajka, T., Poustka, J. and Koudela, M., 2008. Aroma profiles of five basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars grown under conventional and organic conditions. Food Chemistry, 107: 464-472.

- Laribi, B., Bettaieb, I., Kouki, K., Sahli, A., Mougou, A. and Marzouk, B., 2009. Water deficit effects on caraway (Carum carvi L.) growth, essential oil and fatty acid composition. Industrial crop products, 30: 372-379.

- Laspina, N.V., Groppa, M.D., Tomaro, M.L. and Benavides, M.P., 2005. Nitric oxide protects sunflower leaves against Cd-induced oxidative stress. Plant Science, 169: 323-330.

- Lotfi, M., Abbaszadeh, B. and Mirza, M., 2014. The effect of drought stress on morphology, proline content and soluble carbohydrates of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 30: 19-29.

- Mahajan, S. and Tuteja, N., 2005. Cold, salinity and drought stress: an overview. Archive Biochemestry and Biophysic, 444: 139-158.

- Mishra, A.K. and Singh, V.P., 2010. A review of drought concepts. Journal of Hydrology, 391(1): 202-216.

- Misra, A.N., Misra, M. and Singh, R., 2011. Nitric oxide ameliorates stress responses in plants. Plant Soil and Environment, 57(3): 95-100.

- Mohammadi, R., Arghavani, M., Mortazavi, S.N. and Aelaei, M., 2017. The effect of sodium nitroprusside on drought tolerance of perennial ryegrass in germination and early seedling growth stage. Agricultural Crop Management, 19: 335-346.

- Nasibi, F. and Kalantari, K.M., 2009. Influence of nitric oxide in protection of tomato seedling against oxidative stress induced by osmotic stress. Acta Physiologica Plantarum, 31:1037-1044.

- Nasibi, F., 2011. Effect of different concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) pretreatment on oxidative damages induced by drought stress in tomato plant. Iranian Journal of Plant Biology, 3(9): 63-74.

- Neill, S., Barros, R., Bright, J., Desikan, R., Hancock, J., Harrison, J., Morris, P., Rieeiro, D. and Wilson, I., 2008. Nitic oxide, stomatal closure and abiotic stress. Journal of Experimental Botany, 59: 165-176.

- Neill, S., Desikan, R. and Hancock, J., 2003. Nitric oxide signalling in plants. New Phytologists, 159: 11-35.

- Nooshkam, A., Majnoun Hoseini, N., Hadian, J., Jahansooz, M. and Khavazi, K., 2014. The effects of irrigated and rainfed conditions on vegetative and essential oil yield of two medicinal species, Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad and S. rechingeri Jamzad in North of Khuzestan. Electronic Journal of Crop Production, 7: 61-75.

- Omidbaigi, O. and Mahmoudi Sourestani, M., 2010. Effect of drought stress on some morphological traits, amount and yield essential oil of Mexican flower (Agastache foeniculum). Iranian Journal of Horticulture, 41: 153-161.

- Orabi, S.A., Salman, S.R. and Shalaby, M.A., 2010. Increasing resistance to oxidative damage in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants by exogenous application of salicylic acid and paclobutrazol. Journal of agricultural science, 6: 252-259.

- Redman, R., Haraldson, J.M. and Gusta, L., 1986. Leakage of UV-absorbing substances as a measure of salt injury in leaf tissue of woody spicies. Physiologica Plantarum, 67: 87-91.

- Ritchie, S. and Nguyen, H., 1990. Leaf water content and gas exchange parameters of two wheat genotype differing in drought resistance. Crop science, 30: 105-111.

- Safi-Khani, F., Heidari Sharif Abad, H., Siadat, S.A., Sharifi, Ashorabadi, E., Seyednejad, S.M. and Abaszadeh, B., 2006., Drought effects on yield and morphological traits of Dracocephalum moldavica L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 36: 183-190.

- Sarath, G., Bethke, P.C., Jones, J., Baird, L.M., Hou, G. and Mitchell, R.B., 2006. Nitric oxide accelerates seed germination in warm-season grasses. Planta, 223(6): 1154-1164.

- Selmar, D. and Kleinwächter, M., 2013. Influencing the product quality by deliberately applying drought stress during the cultivation of medicinal plants. Industrial Crops and Products, 42: 558-566.

- Taherkhani, T., Rahmani, N., Moradi, A. and Zandi, P., 2011. Assessment of nitrogen levels on flower yield of Calendula grown under different waterdeficit stress using drought tolerant indices. Journal of American Science, 7(10): 591-598.

- Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E., 2006. Plant Physiology. 4th Ed., Sinauer Associates Inc. Publishers, Massachusetts, 580p.

- Tan, J., Zhao, H., Hong, J., Han, Y. and Zhao, W., 2008. Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on photosynthesis, antioxidant capacity and proline accumulation in wheat seedlings subjected to osmotic stress. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 4: 307-313.

- Tian, X. and Lei, Y., 2006. Nitric oxide treatment alleviates drought stress in wheat seedlings. Biologia Plantarum, 50: 775-778.

- Vazque, Z., 2010. Essential oil content and composition of Silybum marianum at different irrigation regimes. Journal of Agronomy, 10: 969-1002.

- Xiong, J., Zhang, L., Fu, G., Yang, Y., Zhu, C. and Tao, L., 2012. Drought-induced proline accumulation isuninvolved with increased nitric oxide, which alleviates drought stress by decreasing transpiration in rice. Journal of Plant Research, 125: 155-164.

- Yang, W., Sun, Y., Chen, S., Jlang, J., Chen, F., Fang, W. and Liu, Z., 2010. The effect of exogenously applied nitric oxide on photosynthesis and antioxidant activity in heat stressed chrysanthemum. Biologia Plantarum, 54: 1-4.

- Zangani, E, Zehtab Salmasi, S., Andalibi, B. and Zamani, A.A., 2017. Enhancement of drought stress tolerance in two genotypes of milk thistle (Silybium marianum (L.) Gaertn.) byexogenous application of sodium nitroprusside. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 33: 636-648.