تأثیر ورمی‎کمپوست و قارچ میکوریزا بر خصوصیات کمّی و کیفی گیاه دارویی استویا (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد رشته اگرواکولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس، گنبد کاووس، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس، گنبد کاووس، ایران

چکیده

شناسه دیجیتال (DOR):
98.1000/1735-0905.1398.35.484.95.3.1578.41

به‌منظور بررسی اثر کودهای ورمی‎کمپوست و میکوریزا بر گیاه استویا (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در چهار تکرار در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه گنبد کاووس در سال 96-1395 اجرا شد. عامل اول ورمی‎کمپوست در چهار سطح (صفر، 10، 20 و 30 درصد وزنی خاک) و عامل دوم تلقیح نشاء با کودهای زیستی در 3 سطح (عدم تلقیح، تلقیح با Glomus mosseae و تلقیح با Glomus intraradices) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که همه نهال‌های حاوی 30% ورمی‎کمپوست به‌دلیل شوری زیاد آن به‌تدریج از بین رفتند و در تیمارهای حاوی 20% رشد بسیار کمی داشتند. اثر ورمی‎کمپوست و قارچ میکوریزا بر تمام صفات مورد بررسی بجز قارچ میکوریزا بر تعداد شاخه جانبی و آنتوسیانین در سطح احتمال 1% معنی‌دار بود. برهم‎کنش آنها نیز بر تمام صفات بجز وزن خشک ساقه معنی‌دار شد. نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد قارچ Glomus mosseae توأم با 10% ورمی‎کمپوست از بیشترین تأثیر مثبت بر صفات مورفولوژیکی مانند ارتفاع بوته (126.63 سانتی‌متر) و طول ریشه (33.75 سانتی‌متر) و قارچ Glomus intraradices توأم با 10% ورمی‌کمپوست بر صفات وزن خشک گل (1.025 گرم)، وزن خشک ریشه (9.928 گرم) و سطح برگ (78212 سانتی‌مترمربع) نسبت به شاهد و عدم تلقیح میکوریزا در سطوح مختلف ورمی‎کمپوست برخوردار بودند. بیشترین میزان کلروفیل a، b، کل و کاروتنوئید (به‌ترتیب 1.25، 1.583، 2.833 و 1.080 میلی‌گرم بر گرم) در تیمار 10% ورمی‎کمپوست و تلقیح با قارچ Glomus intraradices بدست آمد. حداکثر محتوای قند‌های محلول (158.153 میلی‌گرم بر گرم) در تیمار 10% ورمی‎کمپوست بدون تلقیح با قارچ مشاهده شد. با توجه به نتایج این پژوهش استفاده از قارچ Glomus mosseae و Glomus intraradices توأم با 10% ورمی‌کمپوست از بیشترین تأثیر مثبت بر خصوصیات کمّی و کیفی استویا نسبت به شاهد و عدم تلقیح میکوریزا در سطوح مختلف ورمی‌کمپوست برخوردار بودند.

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