بررسی اثر تراکم کاشت و کود شیمیایی بر ویژگی‌های کمّی وکیفی گیاه دارویی صنعتی گوار (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای زراعت، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

3 استاد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

4 استادیار، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

شناسه دیجیتال (DOR):
98.1000/1735-0905.1398.35.408.95.3.1576.41

به‌منظور تعیین اثر کود شیمیایی و تراکم بوته بر ویژگی‌های کمّی و کیفی گیاه دارویی صنعتی گوار (Cyamopsis tetragonaloba L.) آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در دو سال زراعی 94-93 و 95-94 انجام گردید. کود شیمیایی به‌عنوان عامل اول در دو سطح (60، 70، 70) و (90، 100، 100) کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌ترتیب نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاس و عامل دوم سه تراکم 60، 75 و 90 بوته در مترمربع در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که در آزمایش سال اول سطوح کودی بر هیچ‌یک از صفات بجز عامل تورم معنی‌دار نشد. تراکم بر تعداد نیام در سطح 1% معنی‌دار گردید و بر دیگر صفات معنی‌دار نشد. اثر متقابل کود و تراکم بر میزان موسیلاژ معنی‌دار گردید. در آزمایش سال دوم کود بر زیست توده و موسیلاژ معنی‌دار شد و بر بقیه صفات معنی‌دار نشد. سطوح تراکم نیز بر زیست توده و تعداد نیام معنی‌دار شد و اثر متقابل کود و تراکم بر میزان موسیلاژ معنی‌دار و بر بقیه صفات غیرمعنی‌دار شد. مقایسه میانگین‌ها حکایت از افزایش زیست توده و دانه در سال دوم در هر دو عامل داشت. با کاهش تراکم، تعداد شاخه و به‌تبع آن تعداد نیام در بوته افزایش یافت که موجب افزایش عملکرد نیز شد. مقادیر پروتئین خام دانه در سال دوم افزایش نشان داد. میزان موسیلاژ دانه در سال دوم کاهش نشان داد. در این آزمایش میزان تورم دانه با میزان موسیلاژ همبستگی مثبت نداشت. با توجه به نتایج بدست‌آمده در این مطالعه و همچنین لگوم بودن گوار و امکان تأمین بخشی از نیاز تغذیه‌ای توسط خود گیاه، در صورتی که هدف تولید موسیلاژ باشد سطح کودی اول (60، 70، 70) و تراکم 60 بوته در مترمربع در شرایط مشابه با این تحقیق توصیه می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


- Acosta-Callegos, J.A. and Adams, M.W., 1991. Plant traits and yield tability of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars under drought stress. Journal of Agricaltural Science, 117(2): 213-219.

- Ahmadian, A., Ghanbari, A. and Siyahsar, P., 2011. Study of the yield and its components of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) under drought stress and organic and inorganic fertilizers using and their residue. Journal of Agroecology, 3(3): 383-395.

- Asgharipour, M. and Rezvani Moghaddam, P., 2004. Effects of planting date and the amount of seeds on quantity and quality of medicinal plant of Fleawort. Proceedings of the eighth National Conference on Agronomy and Breeding Sciences, Gilan University, 24-26 August.

- Asgharipour, M. and Rezvani Moghaddam, P., 2002. Effects of planting date and the amount of seeds on quantity of medicinal plant of Fleawort. Msc. Thesis of agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mashhad.

- Bahrampour, T. and Akhavan, K., 2015. The Sampling of Soil, Water and Plant and Proper Fertilizer Recommendations. The Organization of Jahad Keshavarzi of Ardebil Province, No. 51, 40p.

- Bahrani, M.J. and Babaei, G., 2007. Effect of different levels of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on grain and its yield components and some quality traits in two sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 9: 237-245.

- Balbhim, L.C., Mangesh, M.V. and Bhimashankar, R.P., 2015. Effects of organic and chemical fertilizers on cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus). European Journal of Experimental Biology, 5(1): 34-38.

- Balogh, A., Pepo, P. and Hornok M., 2006. Interactions of crop year, fertilization and variety in winter wheat management. Cereal Research Communications, 34(1): 389-392.

- Baranauskiene, R., Venskutonis, P.R., Viskelis, P. and Dambrauskiene, E., 2003. Influence of nitrogen fertilizers on the yield and composition of thyme (Thymus vulgaris). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 51(26): 7751-7758.

- Dorri, M.A. and Alamdar, M., 2007. Effect of seed rate and planting date on seed mucilage amount of Palntago ovata in dry farming condition. Pajouhesh & Sazandegi (Natural Resources Journal), 75: 81-85.

- Ebrahimzadeh, H., Mirmasoumi, M. and Fakhre Tabatabai, S.M., 1996. The study of different aspects of mucilage in several areas of Iran in fleawort, Plantain and psyllium cropping. Pajouhesh & Sazandegi (Agronomy Journal), 33(4): 81-85.

- Eilkaee, M. and Emam, Y., 2003. Effect of plant density on yield and yield components in two winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 34(3): 509-515.

- El Mahdi, A.A., 2008. Response of sesame to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization in Northern Sudan. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 8(2): 304-308.

- Eskandari Torbaghan, M. and Eskandari Torbaghan, M., 2015. Effects of amount of seed on yield and some other traits of canola in spring cropping under rainfed conditions. Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences, 8(2): 149-158.

- Fathi, G., Bani Saeidi, A., Siadat, A. and Ebrahimpoor Nourabadi, F., 2008. Effect of different levels and plant density on grain yield of rapeseed, cultivar PF7045 in Khuzestan conditions. The Scientific Journal of Agriculture, 25(1), 43-58.

- Fekri, N., Khayami, M., Heidari, R. and Javadi, M.A., 2008. Isolation and identification of monosaccharide of mucilage in Dragon's head by thin layer chromatography. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 24(2): 207-216.

- Garg, B.K., Kathju, S. and Vyas, S.P., 2005. Salinity-fertility interaction on growth, photosynthesis and nitrate reductase activity in sesame. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 10(2): 162-167.

- Gresta, F., Cristaudo, A., Trostle, C., Anastasi, U., Guarnaccia, P., Catara, S. and Onofri, A., 2018. Germination of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.) genotypes with reduced temperature requirements. Australian Journal of Crop science, 12(06): 954-960.

- Gresta, F., De Luca, A., Strano, A., Falcone, G., Santonoceto, C., Anastasi, U. and Gulisano, G., 2014. Economic and environmental sustainability analysis of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) farming process in a Mediterranean area: two case studies. Italian Journal of Agronomy, 9(1): 20-24.

- Gresta, F., Sortino, O., Santonoceto, C., Issi, L., Formantici, C. and Galante, Y., 2013. Effects of sowing times on seed yield, protein and galactomannans content of four varieties of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) in a Mediterranean environment. Industrial Crops and Products, 41: 46-52.

- Haberle, J., Svoboda, P. and Raimanova, I., 2008. The effect of post- anthesis water supply on grain nitrogen concentration and grain nitrogen yield of winter wheat. Plant Soil and Environment, 54: 304-312.

- Jackson, K.J. and Doughton, J.A., 1982. Guar: a potential industrial crop for dry tropics of Australia. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 42: 17-31.

- Kalyani, D.L., 2012. Performance of cluster bean genotypes under varied time of sowing. LegumeResearch, 35(2): 154-158.

- Khajepour, M., 2007. Industial Plants. Jahaddaneshgahi publication, Isfahan, 564p.

- Majdam, M. and Esmaili, N., 2011. The effect of N fertilizer and plant density on yield of Hyola401. Crop Research and Research on Crops, 12(2): 7-12.

- Mohammad Abadi, A.A., Rezvani Moghadam, P., Fallahi, J. and Bromand Rezazadeh, Z., 2011. Effect of chemical and organic fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Agroecology, 3(2): 249-257.

- Moorthy, B.T., Das, T.K. and Nanda, B.B., 1998. Studies on varietals evaluation, nitrogen and pacing requirement of sesame in rice fallow in summer season. Field Crop Abstract, 51: 173-179.

- Mosaddegh, M., Naghibi, F., Honari, S. and Esmaili, S., 1998. Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plant Materials. World Health Organization, Shahid Beheshti Medical Science University, Conventional Medicine Research Center, 164p.

- Najafi, F., Rezvani Moghaddam, P. and Rashed Mohassel, M.H., 2001. Effect of different irrigation regyms and densities on quantity and quality of medicinal plant of Fleawort (Plantago ovate L.). M.Sc. thesis of agronomy, Ferdosi University, Mashhad.

- Naseri, R., Rahimi, M.J., Siyadat, S.A. and Mirzaei, A., 2015.The effects of supplementary irrigation and different plant densities on morphological traits, yield and its components and protein content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Sirvan region in Ilam province. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research, 6(1): 78-91.

- Nasiri Mahallati, M., 2001. Modeling of Crop Growth Processing (Translation). Jahaad Daneshgahi Press, Mashhad, Iran, 280p.

- Omidbaigi, R. and Rezaei Nejad, A., 2000. The influence of nitrogen fertilizer and harvest time on the productivity of Thymus vulgaris. International Journal of Horticulture Science, 6: 43-46.

- Omidbaigi, R., 1995. Production Approaches and Treatment of Medicinal Plants (Vol. 1). Fekre Rooz Publication, 286p.

- Pandey, V. and Patra, D.D., 2015. Crop productivity, aroma profile and antioxidant activity in Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. under integrated supply of various organic and chemical fertilizers. Industrial Crops and Products, 67: 257-263.

- Parihar, G.N. and Singh, R., 1995. Response of psyllium (Plantago ovata) to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 40: 529-531.

- Ramanjaneyulu, A.V., Madhavi, A., Venkata Ramana, M., Neelima, T.L., Reddy, I., Srinivas, A., Anuradha, G. and Sameer Kumar, C.V., 2018. Agronomic and genetic analysis of performance of Guar varieties under rainfed conditions in a semi-arid climate on Alfisols. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7(8): 2795-2805.

- Salehi, A., Fallah, S., Abasi Sourki, A. and Tadayon, M.R., 2017. Evaluation of yield and yield components of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) under organic and chemical fertilizers. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 33(2): 332-358.

- Sarmadnia, Gh. And Koucheki, A., 1989. Physiology of Crop Plants. Jahaddaneshgahi Publication, Mashhad, Iran, 400p.

- Sharma, B.D., Taneja, K.D., Kairon, M.S. and Jain, V., 1984. Effect of time of sowing and row spacing on yield and quality of guar. Journal of Agronomy, 29: 557-558.

- Sharma, P.K. and Koul, A.K., 1986. Mucilage in seeds of Plantago ovata and its wild allies. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 17(3): 289-295.

- Siddaraju, R., Narayanaswamy, S., Ramegowda, V.A. and Prasad, S.R., 2010. Studies on growth, seed yield and yield attributes as influenced by varieties and row spacing in cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.). Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 44: 16-21.

- Silim, S.V. and Saxena, M.C., 1993. Adaptation of spring- sown the Mediterranean- earn basin. II. Factors influencing yield under drought. Field Crop Research, 34(2): 137-146.

- Singla, S., Grover, K., Angadi, S.V., Begna, S.H., Schutte, B. and Van Leeuwen, D., 2016. Growth and yield of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) genotypes under different planting dates in the semi-arid southern high plains. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 7(8): 1246-1258.

- Tripp, L.D., Lovelace, D.A. and Boring, E.P., 2011. Keys to Profitable Guar Production. Texas Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin, 7-11.

- Vaseghi, A. and Davazdahemami, S., 2016. Comparison of seed oil and mineral content of Guizotia abyssinica Cass. with two genotypes of Iranian and Indian Nigella sativa L. Journal of Oil Plants Production, 2(2): 13-24.

- Xie, P. and Leung, A.Y., 2009. Understanding the traditional aspect of Chinese medicine in order to achieve meaningful quality control of Chinese materia medica. Journal of Chromatography A, 1216(11): 1933-1940.

- Yadollahi, P. and Asgharipour, M., 2015. Effets of irrigating water quality and different fertilizer treatmens on element absorbsion of medicinal plant of Borage (Borago officinalis L.). Journal of applied Research on Plant Ecophysiology, 2(1): 105-120.

- Zhao, J., Ni, T., Li, J., Lu, Q., Fang, Z., Huang, Q., Zhang, R., Li, R., Shen, B. and Shen, Q., 2016. Effects of organic-inorganic compound fertilizer with reduced chemical fertilizer application on crop yields, soil biological activity and bacterial community structure in a rice–wheat cropping system. Applied Soil Ecology, 99: 1-12.

- Zhao, Z., Liu, M. and Tu, P., 2008. Characterization of water soluble polysaccharides from organs of Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. cv. Dongzao). European Food Research and Technology, 226(5): 985-989.

- Zhao, Z.H., Li, J., Wu, X.M., Dai, H., Gao, X.M., Liu, M.J. and Tu, P.F., 2006. Structures and immunological activities of two pectic polysaccharides from the fruits of Ziziphus jujube Mill. cv. jinsixiaozao Hort. Food Research International, 39(8): 917-923.