ارزیابی تغییرات عملکرد کمّی و کیفی اسانس رازیانه (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) در شرایط تنش شوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران

2 دانشیار، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران

3 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی- باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

شناسه دیجیتال (DOR):
98.1000/1735-0905.1398.35.367.95.3.1575.1610

به‌منظور بررسی اثر شوری آب آبیاری بر عملکرد کمّی و کیفی اسانس رازیانه (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‏های یک‌بار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در شرایط زراعی انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی چهار ژنوتیپ رازیانه شامل دو رقم P11-820065 آلمانی و 11486 اروپایی و دو ژنوتیپ بومی همدان و لرستان بودند. تیمارهای شوری آب آبیاری نیز شامل سه سطح 2 (شاهد)، 5 و 8 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر بود. برای استخراج اسانس از دستگاه کلونجر استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که شوری بر کلیه صفات به استثناء آلفا-پینن، میرسن و درصد اسانس معنی‏دار بود. ژنوتیپ‏ها نیز از نظر آنتول، آلفا-فلاندرن، گاما-ترپینن، درصد و عملکرد اسانس تفاوت معنی‏داری نشان ندادند. برهم‌کنش ژنوتیپ در شوری بر کلیه صفات اثر معنی‏داری داشت. ژنوتیپ P11-820065 بیشترین درصد اسانس (3.90%)، عملکرد اسانس (91.41 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و عملکرد خشک بذر (2359.7 کیلوگرم در هکتار) را در سطح شوری شاهد دارا بود، ولی با افزایش سطح شوری روند کاهش عملکرد بذر و اسانس در ژنوتیپ‏های غیربومی با شیب تندتری نسبت به ژنوتیپ‏های بومی بود. میزان آنتول به‌عنوان مهمترین ترکیب رازیانه نیز تا شوری 5 دسی‏زیمنس بر متر افزایش و بعد کاهش نشان داد که روند تغییرات آن عکس میزان اسانس بود. براساس نتایج این تحقیق، در شرایط شوری آب آبیاری ژنوتیپ‏های بومی به علت تحمل بیشترشان نسبت به استرس شوری، از بازده اقتصادی بالاتری برخوردار بودند. شوری آب بر نوع مواد تشکیل‌دهنده اسانس بی‌تأثیر بود و تنها مقادیر این ترکیب‌ها تحت ‌تأثیر آن قرار گرفت.

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