اثر محلول‌پاشی سلنیوم، بور و آهن بر برخی صفات فیزیولوژیک و گلیکوزیدهای استویا (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) تحت تنش شوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی و مرکز تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی و مرکز تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران

3 استاد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی و مرکز تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی محلول‌پاشی سلنیوم، بور و آهن بر عملکرد برگ، میزان رنگریزه‌های فتوسنتزی، فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدان و میزان گلیکوزیدهای استویول گیاه استویا (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) تحت تنش شوری، آزمایشی در شهرستان انزلی- استان گیلان به‌صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال 95-1394 اجرا شد. سطوح تنش شوری با استفاده از کلرید سدیم در چهار سطح شاهد (کمتر از 10)، 30، 60 و 90 میلی‌مولار و محلول‌پاشی با استفاده از ترکیب‌های مختلف از سه عنصر آهن، بور و سلنیوم اعمال شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر تنش شوری و محلول‌پاشی بر عملکرد برگ، میزان رنگریزه‌های کلروفیل (a، b و کل)، کاروتنوئید، محتوی پروتئین، فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدان کاتالاز (CAT)، پراکسیداز (POX) و سوپراکسید دیسموتاز (SOD) و ترکیب‌های تشکیل‌دهنده گلیکوزیدهای استویول معنی‌دار بودند. بیشترین کلروفیل کل، کلروفیل a و کلروفیل b به‌ترتیب با میانگین 4/39، 8/24 و 6/14 میکروگرم بر گرم وزن تر در محلول‌پاشی با ترکیب سه عنصر آهن+بور+سلنیوم در شرایط عدم شوری بدست آمد. بیشترین محتوی پروتئین در محلول‌پاشی با ترکیب آهن و سلنیوم در سطح شوری 90 میلی‌مولار بود که موجب افزایش 5.3 برابری نسبت به تیمار شاهد شد. بیشترین فعالیت آنزیم CAT و SOD به‌ترتیب در محلول‌پاشی با ترکیب سه عنصر و ترکیب سلنیوم و آهن در سطح شوری 90 میلی‌مولار بود که در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد باعث افزایش حدود 130 و 11 برابری فعالیت این آنزیم‌ها شد. بیشترین و کمترین میزان ریبودیوزاید A، استویوزاید و ریبودیوزاید C به‌ترتیب در محلول‌پاشی با ترکیب سه عنصر (آهن + بور + سلنیوم) در سطح شوری 30 میلی‌مولار و عدم محلول‌پاشی در سطح شوری 90 میلی‌مولار بدست آمد. به‌طور کلی به‌منظور دستیابی به میزان بالاتر گلیکوزیدهای استویول، محلول‌پاشی با ترکیب سه عنصر سلنیوم، بور و آهن و تنش شوری تا سطح 30 میلی‌مولار توصیه می‌گردد.

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